Ch 103 Basic Question-Response Formats Open-Ended Open-ended question presents no response options to the respondent.
Ch 104 Basic Question-Response Formats Open-Ended: Unprobed Unprobed format seeks no additional information –Advantage: Allows respondent to use his or her own words –Disadvantages: Difficult to code and interpret Respondents may not give complete answers
Ch 105 Basic Question-Response Formats Open-Ended: Probed Probed format includes a response probe instructing the interviewer to ask for additional information –Advantage: Elicits complete answers –Disadvantage: Difficult to code and interpret.
Ch 106 Basic Question-Response Formats C losed-Ended Closed-ended question provides options on the questionnaire that can be answered quickly and easily.
Ch 107 Basic Question-Response Formats Closed-Ended: Dichotomous Dichotomous has only two response options, such as “yes” or “no” –Advantage: Simple to administer and code –Disadvantage: May oversimplify response options
Ch 108 Basic Question-Response Formats Closed-Ended: Multiple Category Multiple response has more than two options for the response –Advantages: Allows for broad range of possible responses Simple to administer and code –Disadvantages: Must distinguish “pick one” from “pick all that apply” May alert respondents to response options of which they were unaware
Ch 109 Basic Question-Response Formats Scaled-Response Scaled-response question utilizes a scale developed by the researcher to measure the attributes of some construct under study.
Ch 1010 Basic Question-Response Formats Scaled-Response: Unlabeled Unlabeled uses a scale that may be purely numerical or only the endpoints of the scale are identified –Advantages : Allows for degree of intensity/feelings to be expressed Simple to administer and code –Disadvantage: Respondents may not relate well to the scale
Ch 1011 Basic Question-Response Formats Scaled-Response: Labeled Labeled uses a scale in which all of the scale positions are identified with some description –Advantages : Allows for degree of intensity/feelings to be expressed Simple to administer and code Respondents can relate to scale –Disadvantage: Scale may be “forced” or overly detailed
Ch 1012 Considerations in Choosing a Question-Response Format The nature of the property being measured –Gender=dichotomous; liking for chocolate=scale Previous research studies –Use format in previous study if desire to compare
Ch 1013 Considerations in Choosing a Question-Response Format The data collection mode –Cannot use some scales on the phone The ability of the respondent –Kids can’t relate to scaled response The scale level desired
Ch 1014 Basic Concepts in Measurement Measurement: determining how much of a property is possessed by an object Properties: specific features or characteristics of an object that can be used to distinguish it from another object –Objective properties are physically verifiable –Subjective properties are mental constructs
Ch 1015 Scale Characteristics Determine the Level of Measurement Description: the use of a descriptor, or label, to stand for each “unit” on the scale; “yes,” “no,” “male,” “female,” etc. –All levels of measurement have description. Order: the relative sizes of the descriptors are known allowing us to say one is “greater/less than” the other.
Ch 1016 Scale Characteristics Determine the Level of Measurement Distance: the differences between the descriptors are known: there is a $1 difference between $4 and $5. There is a 10 degree difference between 90 and 100 degrees. Origin: there is a true, natural zero: there is a zero level of dollars, market share, sales.
Ch 1017 Levels of Measurement Scales Nominal scales: those that use only labels Ordinal scales: those with which the researcher can rank-order the respondents or responses Interval scales: those in which the distance between each descriptor is equal Ratio scales: ones in which a true zero exists
Ch 1019 Why the Level of a Measurement Scale is Important The scale affects what may or may not be said about the property being measured. –Examples: If you wish to calculate an average, you must use an interval or ratio scale. If you have a nominal or ordinal scale, you must summarize the results with a percentage or frequency distribution.
Ch 1021 Measuring Objective Properties Physically verifiable characteristics such as age, gender, number of bottles purchased, etc.
Ch 1022 Measuring Subjective Properties Cannot be directly observed because they are mental constructs such as a person’s attitudes, opinions, or intentions. For subjective properties, researchers must translate mental constructs onto an intensity continuum.
Ch 1023 Workhorse Scales Used in Marketing Research The Modified Likert Scale The Life-Style Inventory The Semantic Differential Scale –Halo effect Other Scaled-Response Question Formats
Ch 1024 Reliability and Validity Reliability: respondent responds in the same or a similar manner to an identical or nearly identical measure Validity: accuracy of responses to a measure –Face validity