Issues facing Australia’s health system CHAPTER 10.
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Issues facing Australia’s health system CHAPTER 10
Key Knowledge Elements of Australia’s health system A range of issues facing Australia’s healthy system The key features of one health issue facing Australia’s health system, including: – Evidence about the significance of the issue – The range of community and/ or government views about the issue – Actions policies and/ or strategies that may address the issue
Medicare is Australia’s universal healthcare system Established in 1984 You are eligible if you are – An Australian citizen – Australian residents – New Zealand and Torres strait islanders
WHAT MEDICARE COVERS Doctor’s consultations Tests & examinations X-ray and pathology tests Eye tests Free treatment as a public patient in a public hospital WHAT MEDICARE DOESN’T COVER Prescription glasses Ambulance costs Elective surgery Prosthesis Dental examinations Alternative medicines To be a private patient in a private hospital
How is Medicare funded? Medicare is funded by the money collected by the federal government through the medicare levy Medicare levy- an additional 1.5% tax placed on the taxable income of all Australians http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GWSJh- GKps0&feature=relatedhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GWSJh- GKps0&feature=related (medicare levy surcharge)
Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) The federal governments subsidy scheme for essential medicines Over 2600 brands of medicine are on the PBS The ‘co-payment’ is the money which the individual pays for medication $32.90 or $5.30 for concession card holders, the rest is subsidised by the government
PBS safety net threshold Once FAMILIES have spent over $1264.90 on PBS subsidised medication in a year, from then on they only have to pay the concession co- payment rate ($5.30) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eqo9MA myWQM&feature=relatedhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eqo9MA myWQM&feature=related
A form of insurance which a person elects a company and pays a premium to the company in addition to medicare Depending on the contract the PHI will pay for a different range of medical services which aren’t covered by Medicare Let’s look at some PHI policies..... http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5cA2hihz mYA&feature=relmfu public vs private health care http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5cA2hihz mYA&feature=relmfu
Positives of PHI PHI gives Australians choice about which doctor and hospitals they use Alleviates pressure off Medicare Funds private hospitals
FUNDING THE HEALTH SYSTEM Funded by individuals, government and private sector Two thirds of funding from government One third from private sector So how do individuals contribute?
FUN FACTS The % of money spent on health care has increased over the last decade Australia government spends around 10% of it’s budget on healthcare each year Public hospitals and medical services such as doctors are the two largest items of health expenditure
Complete Q 4, 6 & 7 p 333 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9hP1Liwe q0A&feature=relmfu (seeing a doctor in a hospital) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9hP1Liwe q0A&feature=relmfu
VALUES Australia’s healthcare system is underpinned by 9 values they are...... Read p332 and summarise what each of these values means EffectivenessAppropriatenessEfficiency ResponsivenessAccessibilitySafety ContinuityCapabilitySustainability
The issues we are covering include... Human rights and ethical issues Advances in medical technology Use of complementary and/ or alternative health services Environmental health and environmental change An ageing population Provision of rural health services
What are human rights? Respecting the VALUE and DIGNITY that EVERY human being possesses and deserves After World War II, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights was made in 1948 Make a list of things which you would consider to be human rights
The human rights declaration..... Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for health and wellbeing of himself and of his family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care and necessary social services, and the right to security in the event of unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, old age or other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his control
What are ethics? Judgements and behaviours based on what people think is good and right Some examples of ethical issues in the healthy system include....... Whether euthanasia should be legal Whether stem cell research should take place What are some other ethical issues you can think of?
Mini debate You will be broken up into small groups and will research an ethical issue You will be assigned an issue and the particular point of view you will be taking As a group you will need to research and discuss the following – What is the issue? – What is your groups view on the issue? – Arguments for the issue – Why may people be against your point of view? – What are some recommendations you could make to the government about your issue? You will present your findings to the class and hand in the written component which will be copied for all members of the class
You may use your text book or reputable internet sites for your research Your arguments should be based on research not your own opinion The issues are..... – Should euthanasia be legal? – Should stem cell research take place? – Should cloning take place? – Should the elderly have priority in accessing all medical services? – Is abortion ethical?
As medical knowledge has advanced over centuries so has technology The amount of money spent on health care has increased from 5% to 10%. Due to more diagnosis and therefore treatment, life expectancy has increased
Examples of medical technology... Advances in pharmaceuticals & more expensive drugs New treatments such as prosthetics Advances in diagnostic tools
Issues related to medical technology... Focus may turn from prevention to technology May not be cost effective Expensive technology has already resulted in an increase on health expenditure Pressure is put on to governments who may not be able to afford expensive treatments People on low income may not be able to afford treatment
Read case study p339 & complete questions Complete Q4 p. 339 writing arguments for and against in your workbook