Solar Neutrinos, Neutrino Cross Sections, and NUSEL Developments A.B. Balantekin ORNL SNS Workshop August 28, 2003.
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Solar Neutrinos, Neutrino Cross Sections, and NUSEL Developments A.B. Balantekin ORNL SNS Workshop August 28, 2003
Puzzles where neutrinos may play a role What is the Dark Matter made of? What is Dark Energy? How much neutrinos contribute and why? (what is ?) What happened to all the anti-matter?
Solar Energy Generation 4 p alpha particle + 2 positrons + 26.7 MeV 97% is emitted as photons, 3% as neutrinos
Where does the Energy of the Sun come from? 1854 von Helmholtz gravitational 1920 Eddington nuclear fusion “We do not argue with the critic who urges that the stars are not hot enough for this process; we tell him to go and find a hotter place.” 1938 Bethe and Critchfield p+p 2 H +e + + e 1946 Pontecorvo the idea of using chlorine as detec t or 1964 Davis chlorine detector at Homestake Bahcall Standard Solar Model “..to see into the interior of a star and thus verify directly the hypothesis of nuclear energy generation..”
SNO e + d p + p + e - CC e + e e + e ES x + d x + p + n NC
Results from SNO Fluxes (10 6 cm -2 s -1 ) e : 1.76(11) , : 3.41(66) TOTAL :5.09(64) SSM :5.05
Physics Potential of Solar Neutrino Experiments Neutrino Physics - Neutrino masses and mixings, A.B. Balantekin and H. Yuksel, JPG 29, 665 (2003) (hep-ph/0301072). Solar Physics - Solar temperature and density. A.B. Balantekin and H. Yuksel, PRD 68, 013006 (2003) (hep-ph/0303169). Nuclear Physics - Axial two-body current. A.B. Balantekin and H. Yuksel, (hep- ph/0307227).
A global analysis of the solar neutrino data Balantekin & Yuksel hep-ph/0301072
3 parameter Global Fits to Solar Neutrino Experiments And KamLAND for different values of 13 Balantekin and Yuksel, hep- ph/0301072
Effective Field Theories Goal: to integrate the undesired degrees of freedom But ~ Hence introduce counter-terms consistent with the symmetries of the theory to cancel the infinities.
EFT applied to neutrino capture Deuteron break-up : e + d e - + p + p x + d x + p + n 3 S 1 3 S 0 transition dominates and one only needs the coefficient of the two-body counter term, L 1A. (Butler and Chen) p + p d + e + e + ”Calibrating the Sun”
Fundamental discoveries are recently made SNO, 2002: Discovery of the non-electron neutrino component of the solar flux ( neutrino oscillations); measurement of the total solar neutrino flux. SuperK, 1998:Discovery of atmospheric neutrino flux variations ( neutrino oscillations). Baksan, Kamioka, IMB, 1987: Detection of neutrinos from Supernova 1987A (neutrino flux consistent with neutron star binding energy, cooling time is near that expected). Irvine, 1987: Detection of two-neutrino double-beta decay. MSW, 1986: Recognition that matter enhances neutrino oscillations.
.. that broadly impact physics, astronomy, and cosmology Massive neutrinos: Beyond the Standard Model of elementary particles. Neutrino mixing angles are close to maximal: Impacts on leptogenesis; explosion mechanism and nucleosynthesis in core-collapse supernovae. Total solar neutrino flux is measured: The theory of main sequence stellar evolution is verified. Direct neutrino mass measurements: Neutrino component of dark matter. Sloan DDS analysis requires a knowledge of neutrino mass at ≈ 0.3 eV
Open questions in neutrino physics What is the absolute scale of neutrino masses? Direct mass measurements. Why are the mixing angles so large? What is 13 ? Is CP violated in the neutrino sector? Is this the origin of the CP violation needed to explain the baryon asymmetry of the universe? Real-time solar neutrino experiments, very-long baseline experiments. Do sterile neutrinos exist?
Open questions… What is the behavior of neutrinos under charge-conjugation (Dirac vs. Majorana)? Is neutrino its own antiparticle? Double beta decay experiments What is the role of neutrinos in core- collapse supernovae? SN neutrino detectors, MiniBooNE Is CPT violated?
Open questions… Can we do astrophysics with neutrinos? Measure solar properties? Learn about the interior of the supernovae?
Neutrino-nucleus cross- sections A rich physics program, only - C is reasonably well-known. Detector response 16 O, Ga, Mo, Xe, Pb Input into supernova modeling, Fe peak Fundamental physics, strangeness content of the proton Tests of effective field theories, e + d p + p (related to p + p d + e “calibrating the Sun”)
Direct Measurements of the Neutrino Mass KATRIN proposal
Double Beta Decay Probes the charge-conjugation properties of neutrino: (A,Z) (A,Z+2) + e + + e - + e + e Is lepton number-violating: m Maj = i U ei 2 m i
NUSL Overview (cross-section) Oro Hondo Exhaust Ellison Exhaust No.5 Shaft Air Intake No. 4 Shaft No. 3 Shaft No. 7 Shaft Service Shaft 8000’ 7400’ 6800’ 6200’ 4850’ No. 6 Shaft Ross Shaft and Complex Mining and Operations Yates Shaft and Complex Science Operations Proposed Yates Shaft Ext. 7400’ Laboratory Area
Neutrinos in Cosmology = 1 (Inflation) Primordial neutrinos as one component of the dark matter : 3 H beta decay 0.003 closure ≤ ≤ 0.20 closure
Neutrinos from core- collapse supernovae M prog ≥ 8 M Sun E ≈ 10 53 ergs ≈ 10 59 MeV 99% of the energy is carried away by neutrinos and antineutrinos with 10 ≤ E ≤ 30 MeV 10 59 Neutrinos!
Why do we have a baryon excess over antibaryons in the Universe? Baryogenesis conditions (Sakharov): 1. Baryon number non-conservation 2. CP-violation 3. Non-equilibrium conditions Is the CP-violation necessary for this hidden in the neutrino sector?