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Introduction What is Psychology Where it came from What Psychologists do.

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1 Introduction What is Psychology Where it came from What Psychologists do


3 What Is Psychology?  The science of behaviour and mental processes  Psychology is a science

4 Figure 1.2 What Psychologists Do

5 Psychologists at UNBC Psychologists, Researchers, Instructors, Community Members Clinical Psychologists: Registered or ‘Licensed to practice”. Dr.’s, Cindy Hardy, Ken Prkachin and Henry Harder. Research Interests -Development - Health, Social, Environment - Cognition Neuroscience

6 Where Psychology came from.

7 Animism The belief that all animals and all moving objects possess spirits providing motive force.

8 Philosophy Animism Greek Philosophy René Descartes (1596- 1650) Mind/Body Dualism Empiricism Rationalism Materialism

9 The philosophical belief that reality consists of mind and matter. Dualism

10 The Early Traditions  Structuralism was the study of the structure of immediate experience.  The first psychological laboratory was created by Wilhelm Wundt in 1879  Edward B. Titchner popularized Wundt’s work in the English-speaking world

11 Whilhelm Wundt The method of science should be used as the basis for the study of human behaviour. The structure of human consciousness could be studied by introspection. Identify the structure and elements of the mind Use the scientific method to systematically inspect conscious mental processes. A science of immediate experience.

12 The Early Traditions  Functionalism studied how and why the mind functions  It was led by William James

13 Origins of Psychology Functionalism A view of psychology that emphasized the study of experience as adaptive to the complex challenges of a changing world Functionalism is the study of mental operations (not their structure). All functions are a product of our evolutionary history. (Ex. Consciousness evolved because it is adaptive). There is no meaningful distinction between mind and body.

14 The Early Traditions  Gestalt psychology argued a person’s total experience, not just the parts of mind or behaviour, must be studied  Gestalt psychology suggested conscious experience is more than the sum of its parts

15 From Past to Present  Freud emphasized the idea that childhood experiences influence adult behaviour  Freud felt that sexual energy fuels behaviour

16 From Past to Present  Behaviourism was founded by John Watson who rejected the study of contents of consciousness  Behaviourism focused on measuring only what is observable

17 Origins of Psychology Behaviourism The view that psychology should study only observable behaviour. (Watson) The view that psychology should study only observable behaviour and clearly distinguish between observable and inferences. (Skinner)

18 From Past to Present  The humanistic perspective was developed by Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow  The humanistic perspective emphasized each person’s unique experiences

19 The Natural Sciences Physiologists Johannes Müller Doctrine of specific nerve energies: Müllers observation that different nerve fibers convey specific information from one part of the body to one part of the brain.

20 The Somatosensory Homunculus The skin, muscles, bones and organs are laid out on the convoluted (bumpy) brain tissue. Sensations experienced as from the lips produce activity in the ‘lip area of the brain’.

21 Contemporary Psychology The physiology of learned behavior Pavlov

22 From Past to Present The cognitive perspective focused on such processes as perception, memory, and thinking Cognitive psychology holds that humans engage in behaviour because of ideas and thoughts

23 Today’s Perspectives  The evolutionary perspective is based on the work of Charles Darwin  The evolutionary perspective assumes that behaviours that help organisms adapt will be passed on to successive generations

24 Contemporary Psychology The science of behavior and cognitive processes The natural sciences changed the view of psychology to cognitive, biological, socio-cultural, psycho-dynamic and evolutionary.

25 Today’s Perspectives  The biopsychology perspective says behaviour and biology interact in important ways  The biopsychology perspective often focuses on the molecular/cellular level of the nervous system

26 Contemporary Psychology The Neurosciences Donald Hebb Physiological basis of learning. Brenda Milner Neuropsychology and neuro-assessment.

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