8 The importance of the links between language and culture To understand the importance of human communicationTo understand social and cultural behaviorsCultural contexts in which language is used
9 Cultural ModelA cultural model is a construction of reality that is created, shared, and transmitted by members of a group (similar to an ideology)
10 Speech CommunityA group of people who speak the same language, share norms about appropriate uses of language, and share social attitudes toward language ant its use.
11 Characteristics of Human Communication Productivity: the ability to communicatemany messages efficientlyDisplacement: the ability to think in the past, the future and the present
12 The Properties of Languages Sounds--Phoneme: a minimal unit of sound that functions to differentiate the meaning of wordsVocabularyGrammar: rules for combining sounds into sequences that carry meaning
13 The Origins of Languages 50,000Started as paralanguage: non-verbal communication (body posture, voice tone, touch, smell and facial movements)All languages equally efficient (semantically and grammatically)Semantics: the study of meaning in language, including the analysis of meaning of words and sentences