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Chapter 5 System Software
Competencies (Page 1 of 2)Describe the differences between system software and application software Discuss the four types of system software Discuss the basic functions, features, and categories of operating systems Describe the Windows, Mac OS, UNIX, & Linux operating systems Copyright © 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Competencies (Page 2 of 2)Describe the purpose of utilities and utility suites Identify the five most essential utilities Discuss Windows utility programs Describe device drivers, including printer drivers Copyright © 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Introduction Computers and computer applications are ubiquitous in our lives so much so that we expect them to “be there when we need them”. We often give little thought to the processes and programs running behind the scenes to keep our computers functioning effectively. These kinds of programs and processes (i.e. operating systems, utility programs, device drivers, etc…) fall under the topic of system software and are covered in this chapter. Copyright © 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
System Software System software is not a single program but is a collection of programs that handles technical details Works with end users, application software, and computer hardware Four types of programs Operating system Utilities Device drivers Language translators End-users focus on application programs more than the system software, but it is important to understand how system software works Copyright © 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Operating Systems Manage computer resources (memory, processing, storage…etc). Provide an interface between the users and computer (character vs. graphical user interface) Loads and runs applications (support multitasking). Resources Coordinate input and outputs such as keyboard, microphones, printers, mouse, storage devices, and memory User interface (Key Term) Primarily graphical user interface (GUI) Use of icons (Key Term) Applications Word processing Spreadsheets Databases Supporting multitasking (Key Term) Windows most popular operating systems Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows 2000, Windows ME, Windows XP (Key Term), Windows Vista (Key Term) MAC OS – designed to run Apple computers Unix – used by powerful microcomputers, servers on the Web, and minicomputers in network environment Linux – nonproprietary operating systems that run cross platform (Key Term) New photo. Copyright © 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Functions of an Operating SystemPerforms three types of functions Manages computer resources Coordinate memory, processing storage, and printers Monitor system performance Provide security Start-up the computer Provides user interface Character-based interface Graphical user interface (GUI) Runs applications Multitasking Copyright © 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Features of an Operating SystemBooting (the process of starting a computer) Warm boot – computer is already on and you restart it without turning off the power Cold boot – starting a computer that has been turned off Features in common with application software Icons Pointers Windows Menus Dialog boxes Help Booting is Files (Key Term) – used to store data and programs Folders (Key Term) – stores and organizes related files. May also house other folders Copyright © 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Categories of Operating SystemsHundreds of operating systems (sometimes called software environment) Three basic categories Embedded operating systems – hand-held Used for handheld devices, video games consoles (Windows CE, Windows XP embedded). Network operating systems – linked computers Network server: coordinates all communication between the other computers (Windows server, UNIX) Stand-alone operating systems – desktop may also be referred to as a client operating system Copyright © 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
More on Operating SystemsOS often called software environment or platform Operating systems commonly used by individuals Windows – most widely used Mac OS – powerful and easy to use UNIX – network; originally designed for Web LINUX – non proprietary; free from the Web Note that LINUX is easier to learn; easily transfer to UNIX UNIX originally designed as cross-platform to help “integrate” the Web Copyright © 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Windows The most popular microcomputer operating system – over 90 percent of the market Comes in a variety of different versions Windows Vista provides several improvements over Windows XP. Windows has over 90 percent of the market More application programs are designed to run under Windows than any other operating system Windows Vista is designed to be an improvement over Windows XP in the following ways: Advanced security system to guard against malicious files and programs, including spyware Three-dimensional workspace capable of displaying transparent cascading windows (Key Term) Filtering capabilities to provide convenient parental controls by blocking access to objectionable Web sites Return Copyright © 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Mac OS An operating system designed to run on Apple computersNot used as widely as Windows One of the most innovative operating systems Mac OS X is one of the latest versions (10.4 Tiger) Spotlight (Search) - Dashboard Mac OS, Leopard allows the running of both the Mac OS and Windows (Boot Camp) First introduced in 1984 Provided one of the first GUIs Powerful and easy-to-use operating system Mac OS X, version 10.4 – also known as Tiger (Key Term), provides photo-quality icons and easy-to-use menus Spotlight (Key Term) – advanced search tool Dashboard widgets (Key Term) – collection of specialized programs that update and display information One version of Mac OS (called Leopard) will include Boot Camp (Key Term) which allows Apple computers to run both Mac OS and Windows operating systems Return Copyright © 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
UNIX and LINUX UNIX operating system LINUX is a version of UNIXOriginally designed to run on minicomputers on a network Used by powerful microcomputers LINUX is a version of UNIX Not proprietary Open source UNIX Used by powerful microcomputers and by servers on the Web There are a large number of different versions of UNIX LINUX One of the most popular and powerful alternatives to the Windows operating system Copyright © 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Virtualization Virtualization is a process that allows a single physical computer to support multiple operating systems that operate independently. Virtualization software creates virtual machines. Host operating system runs on the physical machine. Guest operating system operate on virtual machines. Copyright © 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Virtualization demo Copyright © 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
What are the benefits of virtualization?Reduce the amount of space required for the different machines. Flexibility in running applications. Testing projects can be easier and faster. Others?? Copyright © 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Utilities Specialized programs to make computing easierMost essential utilities Troubleshooting or diagnostic programs Antivirus programs Uninstall programs Backup programs File compression programs Utilities – specialized programs designed to make computing easier Hard disk crashes Antivirus programs Computer freeze-ups Decrease operation slow-downs Copyright © 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Windows Utilities Backup Disk Cleanup Disk DefragmenterAccessing Windows Vista utilities: Click Start, Select All Programs, Select Accessories, Choose System Tools These utilities can be accessed from the System Tools menu Copyright © 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Backup Utility program included with many Windows versionsMakes a copy of all files or selected files that have been saved on a disk Helps prevent against disk failure If you backup (Key Term) your files, you have a copy of your data in case of a disk failure Return Copyright © 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Disk Cleanup Identifies and eliminates nonessential filesFrees up valuable space and improves system performance When you search the Web, a variety of programs and files are saved to your hard drive Use disk cleanup (Key Term) to get rid of these unnecessary files Files are stored and organized on a disk according to tracks and sectors Tracks (Key Term) – concentric ring Sectors (Key Term) – wedge-shaped sections of a track OS tries to save a file on a single track across contiguous sectors. Often the file has to broken into small parts and stored wherever space is available and the disk over time becomes fragmented Return Copyright © 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Disk Defragmenter Identifies and eliminates unnecessary fragments5-21 Disk Defragmenter Identifies and eliminates unnecessary fragments Rearranges files and unused disk space to optimize operations Speeds up file access Disk Defragmenter (Key Term) should be run on your computer often Some end-users run this utility program daily, while some run it once a week Fragmented (Key Term) files - result of a file having to be broken apart into smaller parts so it can be stored wherever space is available Copyright © 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Utility Suites A group of several utility programs bundled for saleBuying the package is economical Popular suites Norton System Works McAfee Office V Communications SystemSuite Norton SystemWorks AntiVirus CleanSweep Web Cleanup GoBack Personal Edition Norton Utilities One button checkup (Key Term) - integrates several of the separate troubleshooting utilities McAfee Similar programs Copyright © 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Device Drivers Specialized programs that allow communication between a device and the computer Loaded into memory each time a computer is started When a new device is added, new device drivers must be installed Device drivers - programs that work with the operating system to allow communication between device(s) and the rest of the physical system Device drivers are also referred to simply as “drivers” (Key Term) Step-by-step guidance is offered by Windows in the form of wizards that assist with installing drivers e.g. “Add Printer Wizard” (Key Term) Drivers can also be easily updated in Windows by utilizing the Windows Update (Key Term) functionality Copyright © 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Virus Protection and Internet Security5-24 Virus Protection and Internet Security Internet Security Suite Runs a number of programs Continually monitors your computer VirusScan Controls the frequency of searches for viruses Quarantines or deletes infected files PrivacyService Helps protect your privacy online Block websites, cookies, and ads Copyright © 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
5-25 Careers In IT Computer support specialist provide technical support to customers and other users Resolve common networking problems and use troubleshooting programs to diagnose problems Employers look for a bachelors degree, good analytical and communication skills Computer support specialist can expect to earn $31K - $53K annually Copyright © 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
A Look to the Future IBM's Aware SupercomputerIBM’s Automatic Computing Initiative (ACI) Handles time-consuming maintenance Self-regulating and virtually invisible Self-maintaining servers Self-repairing Self-updating Self-protecting Computers may be able to fix themselves in the future Autonomic computing is a system that allows machines to run with little human intervention Copyright © 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
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