Eiichiro Komatsu University of Texas at Austin A&M, May 18, 2007
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1 Using the -ray Background as a Path to Mapping Dark Matter Clustering in the Universe Eiichiro KomatsuUniversity of Texas at AustinA&M, May 18, 2007K. Ahn & EK, PRD, 71, R (2005); 72, R (2005)S. Ando & EK, PRD, 73, (2006)S. Ando, EK, T. Narumoto & T. Totani, MNRAS, 376, 1635 (2007)S. Ando, EK, T. Narumoto & T. Totani, PRD, 75, (2007)
4 Deciphering Gamma-ray Sky Astrophysical: Galactic vs Extra-galacticGalactic origin (diffuse)E.g., Decay of neutral pions produced by cosmic-rays interacting with the interstellar medium.Extra-galactic origin (discrete sources)Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs)BlazarsGamma-ray burstsExotic: Galactic vs Extra-galacticGalactic OriginDark matter annihilation in the Galactic CenterDark matter annihilation in the sub-halos within the GalaxyExtra-galactic OriginDark matter annihilation in the other galaxies
5 BlazarsBlazars = A population of AGNs whose relativistic jets are directed towards us.Inverse Compton scattering of relativistic particles in jets off photons -> gamma-rays, detected up to TeVHow many are there?EGRET found ~60 blazars (out of ~100 identified sources)GLAST is expected to find thousands of blazars.GLAST’s point source sensitivity (>0.1GeV) is 2 x 10-9 cm-2 s-1AMS-2’s equivalent (>0.1GeV) point source sensitivity is about 10 times larger, ~ 10-8 cm-2 s-1 (G. Lamanna 2002)
6 Blazar Luminosity Function Update Narumoto & Totani, ApJ, 643, 81 (2006)LDDELuminosity-Dependent Density Evolution (LDDE) model fits the EGRET counts very well. This model has been derived fromX-ray AGN observations, including the soft X-ray backgroundCorrelation between blazars and radio sourcesLDDE predicts that GLAST should detect ~3000 blazars.This implies that AMS-2 would detect a few hundred blazars.
7 Redshift distribution of blazars that would be detected by GLAST LDDE1: The best-fitting model, which accounts for ~1/4 of the gamma-ray background.LDDE2: A more aggressive model that accounts for 100% of the gamma-ray background.It is assumed that blazars are brighter than 1041 erg/s at 0.1 GeV.Ando et al. (2007)
8 -ray BackgroundUn-resolved Blazars that are below the point-source sensitivity will contribute to the diffuse background.EGRET has measured the diffuse background above the Galactic plane.LDDE predicts that only ~1/4 of the diffuse light is due to blazars!AMS-2 will do MUCH better than EGRET in the diffuse backgroundAndo et al. (2007)(G. Lamanna 2002)
9 Dark matter (WIMP) annihilation GeV-γWIMP dark matter annihilates into gamma-ray photons.The dominant mode: jetsBranching ratios for line emission (two gamma & gamma+Z0) are small.WIMP mass is likely around GeV–TeV, if WIMP is neutralino-like.Can GLAST or AMS-2 see this?Ando et al. (2007)
13 Why MW? Look Outside!WIMP dark matter particles are annihilating everywhere.Why focus only on MW? There are so many dark matter halos in the universe.We can’t see them individually, but we can see them as the background light.We might have seen this already in the background light: the real question is, “how can we tell, for sure, that the signal is indeed coming from dark matter?”
14 Ando & EK (2006); Ando, EK, Narumoto & Totani (2007) Gamma-ray AnisotropyDark matter halos trace the large-scale structure of the universe.The distribution of gamma-rays from these sources must be inhomogeneous, with a well defined angular power spectrum.If dark matter annihilation contributes >30%, it should be detectable by GLAST in anisotropy.A smoking gun for dark matter annihilation.It would be very interesting to study if AMS-2 would be able to detect anisotropy signal --- remember, the mean intensity will be measured by AMS-2 very well!
16 (Anisotropy in Gamma-ray Sky) Why Anisotropy?The shape of the power spectrum is determined by the structure formation, which is well known.Schematically, we have:(Anisotropy in Gamma-ray Sky)= (MEAN INTENSITY) x The mean intensity depends on particle physics: annihilation cross-section and dark matter mass.The fluctuation power, , depends on structure formation.The hardest part is the prediction for the mean intensity. However… Remember that the mean intensity has been measured already!The prediction for anisotropy is robust. All we need is a fraction of the mean intensity that is due to DM annihilation.Blazars account for ~1/4 of the mean intensity. What about dark matter annihilation?
17 A Simple Route to the Angular Power Spectrum To compute the power spectrum of anisotropy from dark matter annihilation, we need three ingredients:Number of halos as a function of mass,Clustering of dark matter halos, andSubstructure inside of each halo.Dark matter haloθ (= π / l)
18 Astrophysical Background: Anisotropy from Blazars Blazars also trace the large-scale structure.The observed anisotropy may be described as the sum of blazars and dark matter annihilation.Again, three ingredients are necessary:Luminosity function of blazars,Clustering of dark matter halos, and“Bias” of blazars: the extent to which blazars trace the underlying matter distribution.This turns out to be unimportant (next slide)Is the blazar power spectrum different sufficiently from the dark matter annihilation power spectrum?
19 Predicted Power Spectrum Ando, Komatsu, Narumoto & Totani (2007)At 10 GeV for 2-yr observations of GLASTBlazars (red curves) easily discriminated from the DM signal --- the blazar power spectrum is nearly Poissonian.The error blows up at small angular scales due to angular resolution (~0.1 deg) & blazar contribution.39% DM61% DM80% DM97% DM
20 What If Substructures Were Disrupted… S/N goes down as more subhalos are disrupted in massive parent halos.In this particular example, the number of subhalos per halo is proportinal to M0.7, where M is the parent halo mass.If no disruption occurred, the number of subhalos per halo should be proportional to M.39% DM61% DM80% DM97% DM
21 “No Substructure” or “Smooth Halo” Limit Our Best Estimate:“If dark matter annihilation contributes > 30% of the mean intensity, GLAST should be able to detect anisotropy.”A similar analysis can be done for AMS-2.39% DM61% DM80% DM97% DM
22 Positron-electron Annihilation in the Galactic Center Jean et al. (2003); Knoedlseder et al. (2005);Weidenspointner et al. (2006)Positron-electron Annihilation in the Galactic CenterINTEGRAL/SPI has detected a significant line emission at 511 keV from the G.C.Extended over the bulge -- inconsistent with a point source!Flux ~ ph cm-2 s-1Continuum emission indicates that more than 90% of annihilation takes place in positronium.
23 INTEGRAL/SPI Spectrum Churazov et al. (2005)INTEGRAL/SPI SpectrumOrtho-positronium continuum is clearly seen (blue line)Best-fit positronium fraction = ( )%Where do these positrons come from?
24 Light Dark Matter Annihilation Light (~MeV) dark matter particles can produce non-relativistic positrons, which would produce line emission at 511keV. The required (S-wave) annihilation cross section (~a few x cm3 s-1) is indeed reasonable!Boehm et al., PRL, 92, (2004)Hooper et al., PRL, 93, (2004)The fact that we see a line sets an upper limit on the positron initial energy of ~3 MeV.Beacom & Yuksel, PRL, 97, (2006)Continuum gamma-ray is also produced via the “internal bremsstrahlung”, XX -> e+e-Beacom, Bell & Bertone, PRL, 94, (2005)How about the extra-galactic background light?
25 AGNs, Supernovae, and Dark Matter Annihilation… Ahn & EK, PRD, 71, R; 71, R; 72, R (05)AGNs, Supernovae, and Dark Matter Annihilation…The extra-galactic background in 1-20MeV region is a superposition of AGNs, SNe, and possibly DM annihilation.SNe cannot explain the background.AGNs cut off at ~1MeV.~20 MeV DM fits the data very well.HEAO-1DMAGNsSMMCOMPTELSNe
26 SummaryConvincing evidence for gamma-rays from DM will have a huge impact on particle physics and cosmology.The Galactic Center may not be the best place to look. The extra-galactic gamma-ray background, which has been measured by EGRET and will be measured more precisely by AMS-2 and GLAST, may hold the key.The mean intensity is not enough: the power spectrum of cosmic gamma-ray anisotropy is a very powerful probe.If >30% of the mean intensity comes from dark matter annihilation (at 10 GeV), GLAST will detect it in two years.Prospects for detecting it in AMS-2 data remain to be seen.A possibility of MeV dark matter is very intriguing.