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Web Application Modeling

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1 Web Application Modeling
Web Engineering Web Application Modeling Lecture III – 21st October 2008 Federico M. Facca

2 Where are we? There are some changes! # Date Title Lecturer 1 7th Oct
Web Engineering Introduction and Overview F. M. Facca 2 14h Oct Collection Requirements for Web Applications 3 21st Oct Web Application Modeling 4 28th Oct Developing Applications with WebML 5 4th Nov Web Application Architectures 6 11th Nov Testing and Usability on the Web 7 18th Nov Web Technologies I 8 25th Nov Mid Term Exam 9 2nd Dec Web Technologies II 10 9th Dec Web Technologies III 11 6th Jan Web Application Development Process 12 13th Jan Web 2.0 Mash-ups F. Daniel (UNITN) 13 20th Jan Project Management for Web Applications 14 27th Jan Final Exam There are some changes!

3 Overview Introduction Model Driven Development Reference Scenario Content Modeling Hypertext Modeling Presentation Modeling Overview of Other Modeling Methods Wrap-up

4 Why do we need modeling? INTRODUCTION

5 Define an abstract view of a real-world entity
Why Create Models? Define an abstract view of a real-world entity Finding & discovering objects/concepts in a domain Assigning responsibilities to objects Tool of thought Reduce complexity Document design decisions Means of communication

6 Software Application Modeling
Levels User interface Application Logic Phases Structure Analysis Design Implementation Behavior Aspects Levels – the “how” & “what” of an application Aspects – objects, attributes, and relationships; function & processes Phases – Development cycle Data Engineering (structure) E-R Chen 1976 UML covers structure, behavior, application logic and user interface Aspects=orthogonal dimension! They refer to the aspects of levels. E.g. application logic structure, application logic behavior. This is take from the book. As regards me, also content should be modeled for normal software applications….

7 Web Application Modeling
Levels Presentation Hypertext Customization Content Phases Structure Analysis Design Implementation Behavior Aspects Levels – Information, node/link structure, UI & page layout separate. Aspects – Same as Software Applications Phases – Approach depends upon type of application Customization – Context information Methods adopted or the web are not new. They are derived from traditional SW. But… hyperlinks?! Why adding a new layer? Corresponds to the status of web applications Improve reuse Content, is the content as displayed in the web application=information structure Several pages access the same content…. If you model it you can reuse it. Presentation: structure: user interface elements and their composition behavior: reactions to input events, interaction and synchronization between user interface elements Hypertext: structure: page compositions and navigational relationships behavior: run-time behavior of hypertext Content structure: domain-dependent data behavior: domain-dependent application logic Phases: There are several approaches: Information based Presentation based Logic based

8 We focus on object-oriented analysis & design
Web Modeling Modeling static & dynamic aspects of content, hypertext, and presentation We focus on object-oriented analysis & design Analysis: Finding & discovering classes of objects/ concepts in a domain Design: Defining software objects & how they interact to fulfill requirements.

9 Objects Software entities – like real-world entities - that consist of states and behaviors States: Variables store the states of an object’s properties Hidden from the outside world (data encapsulation) Behaviors: Methods define the object’s behaviors Used by objects to communicate with other objects Classes blueprints for creating objects of a particular type

10 Discovering Objects in a Domain
The way we represent a domain’s software model should resemble the physical model as closely as possible To find key classes of objects: Reuse existing models, if they exist Make a category list People, places, things Transactions Events Identify noun phrases When naming classes, use terms that are commonly used in the domain i.e., terms users would understand We saw something about “sharing” and “reusing” knowledge. Where? Can it help?

11 Assigning Responsibilities
Responsibilities are an object’s obligations, or behaviors related to its role in the system What does an object do? Doing something (to) itself Pass actions (messages) to other objects Controlling & coordinating the activities in other objects What does an object know? Private, encapsulated data Its related objects Items it can derive or calculate

12 Model Driven Development
From sketch models to code models Model Driven Development

13 Diagrams are, after all, just pretty pictures
Why Models at All? When it comes down to it, the real point of software development is cutting code Diagrams are, after all, just pretty pictures No user is going to thank you for pretty pictures; what a user wants is software that executes Provision of an expressive modeling language … to allow the specification, construction, visualization, and documentation of different artifacts of a software system … to build different types of diagrams … to provide for the exchange of models Meaning of the term »Unified« Support of the whole development process Flexibility with respect to process models Independence from development tools/platforms and programming languages Employment for various application areas Genericity of language concepts defined in the metamodel Integration of »Best Practices« M. Fowler, ”UML Distilled”, 1st edition, Addison Wesley, 1997

14 Unified Modeling Language (UML)
“The Unified Modeling Language is a visual language for specifying and documenting the artifacts of systems.” Language of choice (and ISO standard) for diagramming notation in OO development Structural – Class diagrams (domain models) Behavioral – Use Cases, Sequence diagrams Currently at version 2.0, although many analysts and designers still use 1.0

15 The Role of Model in the Development
Models as sketch For communicating ideas and alternatives Essence: Selectivity “Sketchers” don’t have to care much about Models as blueprint All design decisions (maybe of a particular area) are laid out Essence: Completeness – programming should be pretty straightforward Issue of reverse engineering Models as program Applications are automatically generated In MDA separation of Platform Independent Model (PIM) and Platform Specific Model (PSM); ideally the transformation is "parameterized" by a Platform Description Model (PDM) Essence: models become the source code Semantics and transformations (QVT, ATL) the holy grail of MDA degree of model-drivenness

16 Roundtrip Engineering Model-centric / Model-driven
Model - Code Interplay Code Visualization Roundtrip Engineering Model-centric / Model-driven Code only Model only Model Model Model Model In media stat virtus… but… Round trip is not easy…. Why? Code Code Code Code "Models as Code"

17 Model-Driven ... Systematic development on basis of models
Models become the first hand artifacts in the software development cycle Key concepts abstraction from implementation detail systematic transformations Related Terminology Model Driven [Software] Engineering (MDE), Model Driven [Software] Development (MDD/MDSD), Model Driven Architecture (MDA) Model Driven Web Engineering (MDWE)

18 What is Model Driven Architecture?
MDA is defined and developed by the Object Management Group (OMG) since March 2001 MDA is: "Model-Driven …"-framework for software development, defined by the OMG open, vendor-neutral approach to interoperability using OMG's modeling specifications: Unified Modelling Language (UML), Meta-Object Facility (MOF) and Common Warehouse Model (CWM) Main ideas: Addresses the complete system development life cycle Separate specification from implementation Specify a system that is independent of a platform Transform a platform-independent (PIM) system specification into a specific platform (PSM) Code generation The MDA is an innovative approach to constructing an enterprise architecture. It is an initiative created by the Object Management Group. OMG’s focus has always been, and still is, to help users solve integration problems, in a productive way, by supplying open, vendor-neutral interoperability specifications, which is being achieved by the widely adopted CORBA standard . The MDA is OMG’s next step in solving integration problems, which is upward from application implementation to the level of application design, which takes full advantage of the successful Unified Modeling Language(UML) standard, also developed by OMG.

19 Model-Driven Development (MDD) The Vision
Should go far beyond the notion of CASE tools of the 80’s Reduced gap between problem and realization domain models as primary artefact throughout the lifecycle instead of code models as program instead of models as sketch/blueprint Systematic transformations of abstract models to concrete implementations multiple levels of abstractions, (e.g., OMG’s PIM, PSM and PDM) horizontal (M2M) and vertical (M2C) transformations Standards for uniform storage, exchange, and transformation of models, e.g., OMG’s MOF (Meta Object Facility) and Eclipse’s realization “Ecore” XMI (XML Metadata Interchange) and OCL (Object Constraint Language)

20 Developing in the MDA PIM PSM Code Model
Platform Independent Model(PIM) represents business functionality and behavior without technology details PSM Applies a standard mapping to create or generate a Platform Specific Model (PSM) from the PIM Code Model Create or generate the code for PSM Platform Independent Model Platform Specific Model Lets now look at how applications are developed using the MDA. Step 1. All MDA development projects start with the creation of a Platform Independent Model(PIM), which is expressed in UML. The PIM expresses only business functionality and behavior. Built by business and modeling experts working together, this model expresses business rules and functionality undistorted, as much as possible, by technology. The clarity of this modeling environment allows business experts to ascertain, much better than they could if working with a technological model or application, that the business functionality embodied in the PIM is complete and correct. Another benefit: Because of its technological independence, the PIM retains its full value over the years, requiring change only when business conditions mandate. Transition: MDA tool applies an standard mapping to generate Platform-Specific Model (PSM) from the PIM. Code is partially automatic, partially hand-written Step 2. Once the first iteration of the PIM is complete, it is stored in a MOF based Repository and input to the mapping step which will produce a Platform-Specific Model (PSM). To produce your PSM, you will have to select a target platform or platforms for the modules of your application. Such as J2EE, .NET etc. Transition: MDA Tool generates all or most of the implementation code for deployment technology selected by the developer. Step 3. Once the PSM has been created/generated, the 3rd and final step is to generate the code/implementation model. This will create/generate all of the files the platform requires. When I talk about platforms, I’m referring to the application server(s) your application will run on and programming languages, such as Java, C++ or C# your application will be generated into. This will result in a first cut working application, which can be further enhanced through the MDA process or by hand-coding. Take note that the mapping standard between PIM, PSM and the Code Model has been defined by OMG but the implementation not. MDA compliant tool vendors have implemented portions of the MDA, but OptimalJ is one of the few tools that has implemented the MDA completely to automatically generate a complete application from a PIM to PSM and finally to the Code Model. Code Model

21 Modeling Methods (not all are MDA)
ER OMT 1990 UML HDM 1995 RMM OOHDM HDM-lite WSDM WAE 2000 WEBML W2000 UWE OOWS MDA HERA WAE2 MDA appears only in 2001 Many existing approaches can be related to MDA principles even if the arrived before WebSA is the only 100% MDA WebML, UWE and OO-H has a MDA like approach OO-H 2005 WebSA Data-oriented Hypertext-oriented Object-oriented SW-oriented

22 UML for Web Engineering
The book adopts the UML Web Engineering (UWE) notation UML-compliant Comprehensive modeling tool Download it here: Requires MagicDraw UML (the free edition is enough) In the next lecture we will see WebML in details

23 A simple walkthrough case study
Reference SCENARIO

24 The Conference Review System
This case study was presented at IWWOST 2001 to compare different Web application modeling methods The purpose of the system is to support the process of submission, evaluation and selection of papers for a conference. Reviewed methods includes: UWE OOHDM WSDM WEBML IWWOST=International Workshop on Web-Oriented Software Technology

25 Actors I PC Chair PC Member creating the conference
determining the conference topics (or tracks) and subjects establishing the Program Committee defining the final list of accepted and rejected papers defining the conference deadlines: submission, review, and notification. PC Member evaluating a set of papers assigned to him indicating another person as a reviewer of a paper advising the PC Chair for the final list of accepted papers

26 Actors II Reviewer Author responsible for reviewing a paper
submitting a paper for acceptance at the conference PC Members and Reviewers may also be Authors, they must have different Ids for each role

27 Functions I: Paper Submission
Any registered author may submit a paper The author must register: the title, the abstract, the conference track, and a set of subjects chosen from a list previously determined by the PC Chair, if there is one The system, after checking the authors’ registrations, assigns a paper ID to the new paper, and allows the user to submit it by uploading a file At any moment, an author is allowed to check the data about his submitted papers. Until the submission deadline, the author is also allowed to substitute the uploaded file by a new one, or to change any of the informed data about the paper

28 Functions II: Assignment of Papers to PC Members
The PC Chair may indicate potential conflicts of interest between PC Members and submitted papers Once the submission deadline has been reached PC Members may indicate their interest and also conflicts of interest with some papers In case of conflict of interest, the PC Member will not see any information about the paper The PC Chair assigns papers to PC Members for reviewing, an message with the list of papers, and a URL to a page where he can access these papers is sent

29 Functions III: Entering a Review
A PC Member, or a Reviewer, may enter a review for a paper assigned to him The review is entered by accessing a form containing all the evaluation items A PC Member may see other reviews (entered by others) for any of the papers he is reviewing, but only after he has entered his own review The PC Chair has full access to all papers and all reviews

30 Function IV: Choosing Accepted and Rejected Papers
Once the review deadline has been reached, the review process is closed The PC Chair, taking into account the recommendations of the PC Members and reviewers, chooses the papers that will be accepted and rejected Once the process is marked as finalized by the PC Chair, the system issues a notification message to paper authors, which includes the appropriate parts of the reviews submitted by the PC Members and reviewers

31 How to model the data underlying a Web application

32 Purpose: To model the information requirements of a Web application
Introduction Purpose: To model the information requirements of a Web application Diagramming the structural (i.e., information objects) & behavioral aspects of the information. NOT concerned with navigation. Primary Models Class diagrams – enough for static applications. State machine diagrams – captures dynamic aspects

33 Content Structure Model
Relation Class name Class attributes Composition Class operations Can you model it with a E-R diagram? What will be missing? Invariant Derived attribute

34 Content Behavior Model
Initial State Condition Final State

35 How to model the hypertext of a Web application
Hypertext Modeling

36 Purpose: To model the navigation paths available to users
Introduction Purpose: To model the navigation paths available to users UWE Artifacts Hypertext Structure Model – navigating among classes Access Model – UML-compliant site map Focuses on the structure of the hypertext & access elements Use “<<navigation class>>” annotation to distinguish from content classes Based on content models

37 Different Models… Different Links…
HDM (Hypertext Design Model) Structural links Perspective links Application links WebML (Web Modeling Language) Contextual links Non-contextual links Intra-page links Inter-page links HDM: Structural links connect elements of the same node, e.g., from a review summary to the review details Perspective links put various views of a node in relation to each other, e.g., the PostScript and the PDF versions of a paper Application links put different nodes in relation to each other, depending on the application, e.g., a link pointing to “best paper”. WebML: Contextual links carry context information, e.g., the unique number of a reviewer, to navigate from one reviewer to the reviews he or she created Non-contextual links have no associated context information, e.g., links pointing from a single review to the list of all reviews. With regard to the distribution of nodes on the hypertext level over pages on the presentation level (see section 3.7), WebML specifies additionally the following types of links: • Intra-page links are used when the source and the destination of a link belong to the same page, e.g., when a link allows the user to directly navigate to the summary of a paper, which is displayed further down on the page. • Inter-page links are used when the source and the destination are on different pages, e.g., when detailed information about the authors and their papers are on different pages.

38 Navigation Structure Model
Is this model easy to understand? Does this model resemble what you will have in the end?

39 Navigation Access Model
Hypertext structure models describe navigation, but not orientation. Access models describe both through Navigation patterns, used to consistently describe conventional elements. <<index>> (list of objects of the same type) <<menu>> (list of heterogeneous objects) <<guided-tour>> (sequential links) <<query>>

40 Navigation Access Model
Is it clear to what page each component belongs? I.e. what the relation with the previous schema? Page identity is missing! The models cannot be mixed together: this is not intuitive.

41 Presentation Modeling
How to model the look&feel of a Web application Presentation Modeling

42 The design should aim for simplicity and self-explanation.
Introduction Purpose: To model the look & feel of the Web application at the page level. The design should aim for simplicity and self-explanation. Describes presentation structure: Composition & design of each page Identify recurring elements (headers/footers) Describes presentation behavior: Elements => Events

43 Levels of Presentation Models
Presentation Page – “root” element; equivalent to a page container. Presentation Unit A fragment of the page logically defined by grouping related elements. Represents a hypertext model node Presentation Element A unit’s (node’s) informational components Text, images, buttons, fields

44 Presentation Structure Model

45 Presentation Behavior Model

46 Overview of Oder Modeling Methods
How other model looks like?! Overview of Oder Modeling Methods



49 WebML

50 That’s almost all for day…

51 Things to keep in mind (or summary)
Modeling is fundamental Helps development Support communication Model Driven Design and Development Automatic code generation of Web applications One model for each layer Content Navigation Presentation Different methods have different expressive power

52 Bibliography Mandatory reading Suggested Web Engineering
Chapter 3 Suggested First International Workshop on Web-Oriented Software Technology UML-based Web Engineering

53 Assignments I It’s a compulsory team assignment
Up to 8 points (as always extras are possible) You have to use UWE to model the described system It’s the starting point for next assignments You have to prepare a presentation 10 minutes ~ 5 slides You have to prepare a report To be delivered on 2nd November for the opponents to read it The grade will be assigned during a design review A opponent group will revise the design models according to requirements The review will be “live” in the lecture on 4th November Review guidelines in the next lecture

54 Assignment II The hospital of Innsbruck needs a Web application to handle online visit reservation The application should handle: Information on patient (name, surname, social security code, date of birth, address, blood type, family anamnesis, physiologic anamnesis, pathologic anamnesis) Information on doctors (name, surname, social security code, date of birth, specialization, role, year of experience) Information on visits (ID visit, visit type, information on the visit, date, report) All the visit reservation process: Reservation Provisioning Report publication

55 Assignment III The application requires different type of user with different functionalities Patients General Information Reservation of visits Visualization of existing visit reservations Visualization of reports Doctors Editing of reports Administrators Editing of data related to visit typology and associated price

56 All the users needs to authenticate through username and password
Assignment IV All the users needs to authenticate through username and password Simplification When the users logs in is redirected to the proper Web application/page according to the role Calendar handling is not required For reservation only data required are the day and the time (from Monday to Friday) and the time (from 8.00 to 17.00)

57 Next Lecture # Date Title Lecturer 1 7th Oct
Web Engineering Introduction and Overview F. M. Facca 2 14h Oct Collection Requirements for Web Applications 3 21st Oct Web Application Modeling 4 28th Oct Developing Applications with WebML 5 4th Nov Web Application Architectures 6 11th Nov Testing and Usability on the Web 7 18th Nov Web Technologies I 8 25th Nov Mid Term Exam 9 2nd Dec Web Technologies II 10 9th Dec Web Technologies III 11 6th Jan Web Application Development Process 12 13th Jan Web 2.0 Mash-ups F. Daniel (UNITN) 13 20th Jan Project Management for Web Applications 14 27th Jan Final Exam

58 Questions?

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