2 What is a poem? A poem is A fishing net stronger than what it catches The sound of natureIn a capsuleLike a seedOr more-likeA mirrorFor manTo look throughTo expose himselfTo blend as part of a wholeWhere one belongs
3 Poetry Poetry is the art of expressing one’s thoughts in verse. It uses few words to convey its message. It is meant to be read aloud.Poetry arouses our emotions.Poems use imagery or figures of speech to explain feelings or to create a mental picture or idea.These suggest action or mood. Many poems have a specific rhyme scheme. Poems can rhyme or not rhyme.
5 Elements Line A single line in a poem. Often organized into stanzas. 2 lines is a couplet.3 lines is a triplet or tercet.4 lines is a quatrain.5 lines is a quinrain or a cinquain.6 lines is a sestet.8 lines is a octet.
6 The lines are organized ElementsLine“To a Snowflake”1 Hello little snowflake!2 Where are all your friends?3 Should I expect a lot of them4 before the morning ends?5 I love it when you come to me6 and you all fall down together,7 and I get dressed to visit you,8 toasty warm in cold, cold weatherThe poem has 8 lines.The lines are organizedinto quatrains.
7 Elements Stanza A group of lines. Usually develops one idea. Give poems structure.Emphasize different ideas.Beginning a new stanzas often signals the beginning of a new image, thought, or idea.
8 “First and Last” by David McCord ElementsStanzaFour Stanzas in Couplets Each Stanza Signals a New Image“First and Last” by David McCordA tadpole hasn’t a pole at all,And he doesn’t live in a hole in the wall.You’ve got it wrong: a polecat’s notA cat on a pole. And I’ll tell you what:A bullfrog’s never a bull; and howCould a cowbird possibly be a cow?A kingbird, though, is a kind of king,And he chases a crow like anything. Each stanza signalsa new image
9 Elements Rhyme and rhyme scheme Words rhyme when they have the same sound.Poems often use rhyme at the end of lines.Rhyme scheme is a pattern of rhymes in a poem.Poets use rhyme to add a musical sound to their poems.
10 Elements Rhyme and rhyme scheme “Ten Minutes Till the Bus” by David L. HarrisonTen whole minutes Till the bus,Scads of time, What’s the fuss?Two to dress, One to flush,Two to eat, One to brush,That leaves four To catch the bus,
11 Elements Rhyme and rhyme scheme Ottava rima Terza rima Ottava rima is a rhyming scheme using a stanza of eight lines with an alternating a-b rhyming scheme for the first six lines followed by a closing couplet.First used by Boccaccio, it was developed for heroic epics but has also been used for mock-heroic poetry.Terza rimaDante's Divine Comedy is written in terza rima, where each stanza has three lines, with the first and third rhyming, and the second line rhyming with the first and third lines of the next stanza (thus, a-b-a / b-c-b / c-d-c, et cetera.) in a chain rhyme.The terza rima provides a flowing, progressive sense to the poem, and used skilfully it can evoke a sense of motion, both forward and backward. Terza rima is appropriately used in lengthy poems in languages with rich rhyming structures (such as Italian, with its many common word endings).
12 ElementsRhythmPattern of beats or a series of stressed and unstressed syllables in poem.Poets create rhythm by using words in which parts are emphasized or not emphasized.
13 Elements Rhythm Windy Nights” By Robert Louis Stevenson Whenever the moon and stars are set, Whenever the wind is high,All night long in the dark and wet,A man goes riding by.Late in the night when the fires are out,Why does he gallop and gallop about?
14 Elements Rhythm Windy Nights” By Robert Louis Stevenson Whenever the moon and stars are set, Whenever the wind is high,All night long in the dark and wet,A man goes riding by.Late in the night when the fires are out,Why does he gallop and gallop about?
15 ElementsFree VersePoetry written without a regular rhyme, rhythm, and form.Sounds natural, just like everyday conversation.Poets use free verse because it allows them to experiment with the shapes and sounds in their poetry.No rhyme or regular rhythm
16 Blossoms” by Walter Dean Myers ElementsFree VerseBlossoms” by Walter Dean MyersI never dreamtthat tender blossomswould be brownOr precious angelscould come downto live in the gardenof my giving heartBut here you arebrown angel
17 Elements Imagery Imagery Language that appeals to the 5 senses. Are “word pictures”.Helps the reader to experience familiar things in a fresh way using the senses.Strong Image Sensory Words Uses Senses Sound Smell Taste Touch Sight
18 “There is a Thing” by Jack Prelutsky ElementsImagery“There is a Thing” by Jack PrelutskyThere is a thingbeneath the stairwith slimy faceand oily hairthat does not moveor speak or singor do anothersingle thingbut sit and waitand oily hair.
19 ElementsSymbolSomething that stands for something more than just itself. Suggests another larger meaning. Example: the American flag is a symbol of freedom.
20 Elements Symbol “The Farmer” By Carole Boston Weatherford A plot of weeds,An old grey mule.Hot sun and sweatOn a bright Southern day.Strong, stern papaUnder a straw hat,Plowing and plantingHis whole life away.His backbone is forgedOf African IronAnd red Georgia clay. The farmer is a symbol of the proud African culture and the South. “African Iron” and “red Georgia clay” describe the farmer, but link him to his African ancestors in Africa and his fellow southerners.
21 Elements Mood Feeling that a poem creates in the reader. Can be positive or negative.Poet creates the mood with the length of sentences, the words chosen, punctuation, and the sounds of the words.
22 “Poor” by Myra Livingston ElementsMood“Poor” by Myra LivingstonI heard of poor.It means hungry, no food.No shoes, no place to live,Nothing good.It means winter nightsAnd being cold,It is lonely, alone.Feeling old.Poor is a tired face.Poor is thin.Poor is standing outsideLooking in. Short words and lines create a serious mood. Words create a feeling of sadness.
23 ElementsToneAttitude a writer takes toward the subject or audience of a poem.
24 Elements Tone “The Crocodile” How doth the little crocodile Improve his shining tail,And pour the water of the NileOn every golden scale!How cheerfully he seems to grin,How neatly spreads his claws,And welcomes little fishes inWith gently smiling jaws! The subject of the poem is crocodiles. The author’s attitude towards crocodiles is that they are dangerous
25 Elements Figures of Speech Hyperbole Exaggeration Describe something as larger or wildly different than it actually is.Poets use exaggeration to create a mental picture and spark a reader’s imagination
26 Elements Figures of Speech Hyperbole “Beetles” by Monica Shannon Beetles must use polish,They look so new and shiny!Just like a freshly painted car,Except for being tiny.Poet stretches the truth about how beetles become shiny to make readers smile and to create greater interest in these insects.
27 Elements Figures of Speech Allusion a figure of speech making casual reference to a famous historical or literary figure or event"Like a modern Daniel, the brave little boy strode to the playground in order to face the school bully.
28 Elements Figures of Speech Simile Comparison between 2 things, using the words like or as.Poets use comparisons between things to make you think about them in a new way.Used to surprise the reader and to create strong images.
29 “The World” by Noel Berry ElementsFigures of SpeechSimile“The World” by Noel BerryThe trees are like the hair of the world.The city is like the heart of the world.The wind is a flute playerplaying in the night.The cars beeping horns are like buttonsbeeping inside the earth.Each bird is like a single piccolosinging awayand the grass, just like me,being buried under the snow.
30 Elements Figures of Speech Metaphor Direct comparison between 2 things.Does NOT use the words like or as.Poet describes a thing or person as if it actually were the other thing or person.Creates a clear, memorable picture and tries to get you to see the original subject in a new way.
31 Elements Figures of Speech Metaphor “Dreams” by Langston Hughes Hold fast to dreamsFor if dreams dieLife is a broken-winged birdThat cannot fly.For when dreams goLife is a barren fieldFrozen with snow.
32 Elements Figures of Speech Onomatopoeia Use of words that sound like the noises they describe.Poets choose words not just for what they mean, but what they sound like.Poets use onomatopoeia to liven up their writing and add fun sounds to it.
33 “The Fourth” by Shel Silverstein ElementsFigures of SpeechOnomatopoeia“The Fourth” by Shel SilversteinOhCRASH!myBASH!it’sBANG!theZANG!FourthWHOOSH!OfBAROOM!JulyWHEW!
34 Elements Figures of Speech Personification Type of figure of speech that gives human qualities to animals, objects, or ideas.Adds life to a poem and helps the reader view a familiar thing in a new way.
35 “Snowy Benches” by Aileen Fisher ElementsFigures of SpeechPersonification“Snowy Benches” by Aileen FisherDo parks get lonelyin winter, perhaps,when benches have onlysnow on their laps?Parks have feelings and benches have laps. The poet asks whether the parks feel lonely in winter, like people sometimes do.
36 Elements Figures of Speech Idiom An everyday saying that doesn’t exactly mean what the words say.Poet’s use idioms because that’s the way people talk to each other.Example: “easy as pie” means you are able to do something without difficulty
37 “Last Night” by David L. Harrison ElementsFigures of Speech“Last Night” by David L. HarrisonLast night I knew the answers.Last night I had them pat.Last night I could have told youEvery answer, just like that!Last night my brain was cooking.Last night I got them right.Last night I was a genius.So where were you last night!“I had them pat” - knowing something well. “My brain is cooking” - it was working fast and bubbling over with ideas.
38 Elements Sound Alliteration: Assonance The repetition of similar initial consonant sounds. The repetition of consonant sounds, particularly at the beginning of words.Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppersAssonanceThe repetition of similar stressed vowel sounds. The repetition of similar vowel sounds. Similarity of sounds; particularly, as distinguished from rhyme, the similarity of like vowels followed by unlike consonants.I rose and told him of my woe
39 Elements Sound Consonance Elision The repetition of similar final consonant sounds.ElisionThe omission of an unstressed vowel or syllable to preserve the meter of a line of poetry. The running together of vowels in adjacent words, for the sake of eliminating a syllable."th'eternal, as happy'as I."
40 Quiz: Identify the elements found in this poem LineStanzaRhyme/rhyming schemeFree verse or Traditional FormImagerySymbolMoodToneFigures of SpeechSound
41 Shall I compare thee to a summer's day Shall I compare thee to a summer's day? Thou art more lovely and more temperate. Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May, And summer's lease hath all too short a date. Sometime too hot the eye of heaven shines, And often is his gold complexion dimm'd; And every fair from fair sometime declines, By chance or nature's changing course untrimm'd; But thy eternal summer shall not fade Nor lose possession of that fair thou ow'st; Nor shall Death brag thou wander'st in his shade, When in eternal lines to time thou grow'st: So long as men can breathe or eyes can see, So long lives this, and this gives life to thee.
42 Poetic Feet and Metrical Patterns Different traditions and genres of poetry tend to use different meters, ranging from the Shakespearian iambic pentameter and the Homeric dactylic hexameter to the Anapestic tetrameter used in many nursery rhymes. However, a number of variations to the established meter are common, both to provide emphasis or attention to a given foot or line and to avoid boring repetition.
43 Poetic FeetIambone unstressed syllable followed by a stressed syllable; The iamb is the most common metrical foot in English poetry; unrhymed iambic pentameter, also called blank verse, is perhaps the most common form of metrical verse in English.A slumber did my spirit seal;I had no human fears:She seemed a thing that could not feelThe touch of earthly yearsNo motion has she now, no force;She neither hears or sees;Rolled round in earth's diurnal course,With rocks, and stones, and trees.
44 Poetic Feettrocheeone stressed syllable followed by an unstressed syllable;a metrical foot used in formal poetry consisting of a stressed syllable followed by an unstressed one.Should you ask me, whence these stories?Whence these legends and traditions,With the odours of the forest,With the dew and damp of meadows,
45 Poetic FeetDactylone stressed syllable followed by two unstressed syllablesThis is the / forest prim- / eval. The / murmuring / pines and the / hemlocks,Picture yourself in a boat on a river with tangerine tree-ees and marmalade skii-ii-es.
46 Poetic FeetAnapesttwo unstressed syllables followed by one stressed syllableIn classical quantitative meters it consists of two short syllables followed by a long one (as in a-na-paest); in accentual stress meters it consists of two unstressed syllables followed by one stressed syllable.It may be seen as a reversed dactyl.The Assyrian came down like a wolf on the foldAnd his cohorts were gleaming in purple and goldAnd the sheen of their spears was like stars on the seaWhen the blue wave rolls nightly on deep Galilee.
47 Poetic Feet Spondee two stressed syllables together It is unrealistic to construct a whole, serious poem with spondees. Consequently, spondees mainly occur as variants within, say, an anapaestic structure.This is my son, mine own TelemachusTo whom I leave the scepter and the isle,Well-loved of me, discerning to fulfillThis labour, by slow prudence to make mildA rugged people, and through soft degreesSubdue them to the useful and the good.
48 Poetic FeetPyrrhictwo unstressed syllables together (rare, usually used to end dactylic hexameter)a metrical foot used in formal poetry. It consists of two unaccented, short syllablesIt is also known as a dibrach.Be near me when my light is low,When the blood creeps and the nerves prickAnd tingle; and the heart is sick,And all the wheels of Being slow.—from In Memoriam.
49 Poetic FeetThe number of metrical feet in a line are described in Greek terminology as follows:dimeter – two feettrimeter – three feettetrameter – four feetpentameter – five feethexameter – six feetheptameter – seven feetoctameter – eight feet
50 Common Metrical Patterns Different traditions and genres of poetry tend to use different meters, (Shakespearian iambic pentameter, the Homeric dactylic hexameter, Anapestic tetrameter in many nursery rhymes)Variation of these metrical patterns can also be made to provide emphasis or attention to a given foot or line and to avoid boring repetition.Example of added variation:the stress in a foot may be inverteda caesura (or pause) may be added (sometimes in place of a foot or stress)or the final foot in a line may be given a feminine ending to soften it or be replaced by a spondee to emphasize it and create a hard stop.
51 Common Metrical Patterns Some patterns (such as iambic pentameter) tend to be fairly regular, while other patterns, such as dactylic hexameter, tend to be highly irregular.Regularity can vary between language. In addition, different patterns often develop distinctively in different languages.iambic tetrameter in Russian will generally reflect a regularity in the use of accents to reinforce the meter, which does not occur, or occurs to a much lesser extent, in English.
52 Common Metrical Patterns Iambic pentameterJohn Milton, Paradise LostDactylic hexameterVirgil, AeneidHomer, IliadOvid, MetamorphosesIambic tetrameterAndrew Marvell, To His Coy Mistress“Aleksandr PushkinEugene OneginTrochaic octameterEdgar Allan Poe, The RavenAnapestic tetrameterLewis Carroll, The Hunting of the SnarkLord Byron, Don Juan
53 Identify the metric pattern used. And walked with inward glory crownedWoman much missed, how you call to meThe Assyrian came down like the wolf on the fold.So rich and fair a vale in fortuning to wed.Piping down the valleys wind.
56 FormsSonneta poem of fourteen lines with a set of rhyming scheme and logical structure (iambic pentameter)Poets who used sonnetsWilliam ShakespeareEdmund SpenserMichael DraytonSamuel DanielFulke GrevilleWilliam Drummond of Hawthornden
58 FormsJintishia Chinese poetic form based on a series of set tonal patterns using the four tones of the classical Chinese language in each couplet: the level, rising, falling and entering tones.It has eight lines in four couplets, with parallelism between the lines in the second and third couplets. The couplets with parallel lines contain contrasting content but an identical grammatical relationship between wordsWriters who used the JintishiWang WeiCui HaoDu Fu
59 FormsSestinaThe lines are grouped into six sestets and a concluding tercet. Thus a Sestina has 39 lines.Lines may be of any length. Their length is usually consistent in a single poem.The six words that end each of the lines of the first stanza are repeated in a different order at the end of lines in each of the subsequent five stanzas.The repeated words are unrhymed.The first line of each sestet after the first ends with the same word as the one that ended the last line of the sestet before it.In the closing tercet, each of the six words are used, with one in the middle of each line and one at the end.
60 Forms Sestina Writers who used the sestina Philip Sidney Dante PetrarcaEzra Pound,John AshberyJoan Brossa
61 The Concord Art Association Regrets Pam WhiteYour entry was not accepted. We regretit wasn't (enough for us), a work of love.We liked many of the colors on the wholebut the mass was just something unrelatedto the rest of our show. We hope your workwill have a bright future in another place.We remember last year you tried to placeanother photograph and it was also with regretwe turned you down. Though for that particular workwe found nothing about it (no one could) to love.It was obscure and a little upsetting in relationto the rest of our show which we look on as a whole.
62 Now you may think us ungenerous. On the whole you are probably right, but this is our placeand we can do what we want whether you relateto it or not. However we don't want you to regretyour association with us. We want you to loveus, send us money, but please, no more work.You see right now we need money to workon the building we're in. There's a holein the roof and one wall needs all the loveand attention it can get. Really the placeneeds so much, which all costs. I regretto remind you we need more space for related
63 works. We're trying to expand and relate to lots of different kinds of workso different people won't regrettheir visit with us but will see the wholebeauty and tranquillity of the placeand come with us, a journey of lovewhere people of all races, colors, and creeds loveto look and bask and of course bring relations,friends, and lovers. All are welcome to our placehere where all the world's magnificent workcan be shown in its entirety, the wholeplace filled - with your exception, we regret.We know you'll love the wholework we're doing for this place.We can't relate enough our regret.
64 FormsVillanelleThe Villanelle is a nineteen-line poem made up of five triplets with a closing quatrain; the poem is characterized by having two refrains, initially used in the first and third lines of the first stanza, and then alternately used at the close of each subsequent stanza until the final quatrain, which is concluded by the two refrains. The remaining lines of the poem have an a-b alternating rhyme.Writers who used villanelleThéodore de BanvilleAustin DobsonElizabeth BishopOscar WildeEdwin Arlington Robinson
65 Dylan Thomas' "Do Not Go Gentle into That Good Night Old age should burn and rave at close of day;Rage, rage against the dying of the light.Though wise men at their end know dark is right,Because their words had forked no lightning theyGood men, the last wave by, crying how brightTheir frail deeds might have danced in a green bay,Wild men who caught and sang the sun in flight,And learn, too late, they grieved it on its way,Grave men, near death, who see with blinding sightBlind eyes could blaze like meteors and be gay,And you, my father, there on the sad height,Curse, bless, me now with your fierce tears, I pray.
66 Lewis Turco's "Terzanelle in Thunderweather“ This is the moment when shadows gatherunder the elms, the cornices and eaves.This is the center of thunderweather.The birds are quiet among these white leaveswhere wind stutters, starts, then moves steadilyunder the elms, the cornices, and eaves--these are our voices speaking guardedlyabout the sky, of the sheets of lightninginto our lungs, across our lips, tighteningour throats. Our eyes are speaking in the darkabout the sky, of the sheets of lighteningthat illuminate moments. In the starkshades we inhibit, there are no words forof things we cannot say, cannot ignore.This is the moment when shadows gather,shades we inhibit. There are no words, forthis is the center of thunderweather.
67 FormsPantoumThe pantoum is a rare form of poetry similar to a villanelle. It is composed of a series of quatrains; the second and fourth lines of each stanza are repeated as the first and third lines of the next.Writers who used the pantoumVictor HugoLeconte de LisleWilliam MarsdenDavid TrinidadJohn Ashbery
68 As she dances on the moonlit glen Taking in the freshness of the airShe is alone, but not lonelyShe is surrounded by spiritsSearching again for her silent companionsThey watch the contentment she holdsA First LineB Second LineC Third LineD Fourth LineE Fifth LineF Sixth Line
69 FormsRondeauThe rondeau was originally a French form, written on two rhymes with fifteen lines, using the first part of the first line as a refrain.
70 In Flanders Fields, by John McCrae In Flanders fields the poppies blowBetween the crosses, row on row,That mark our place, and in the sky,The larks, still bravely singing, fly,Scarce heard amid the guns below.We are the dead; short days agoWe lived, felt dawn, saw sunset glow,Loved and were loved, and now we lieIn Flanders fields.Take up our quarrel with the foe!To you from failing hands we throwThe torch; be yours to hold it high!If ye break faith with us who dieWe shall not sleep, though poppies grow
71 FormsTankaTanka is a form of unrhymed Japanese poetry, with five sections totalling 31 onji (phonological units identical to morae), structured in a pattern. There is generally a shift in tone and subject matter between the upper phrase and the lower 7-7 phrase.Writers who used the TankaMurasaki ShikibuKojikiMeiji
72 Izumi ShikibuMy longing for you -too strong to keepAt least no one can blame me,when I go to you at night,along the road of dreams
73 FormsHaikuHaiku is a popular form of unrhymed Japanese poetry, which evolved in the 17th century from the hokku, or opening verse of a renku.Written in a single vertical line, the haiku contains three sections totalling 17 onji, structured in a pattern.Traditionally, haiku contain (1) a kireji, or cutting word, usually placed at the end of one of the poem's three sections; and (2) a kigo, or season-word.Writers using HaikuMatsuo BashōMasaoka Shiki
74 Matsuo Bashothe wind of Mt. FujiI've brought on my fan!a gift from Edo富士の風や扇にのせて江戸土産fuji no kaze ya oogi ni nosete Edo miyage
75 Haiku and Tanka SIMILARITIES simplicity Succinct (brief and to the point)reflects naturetraditionally no violencetraditionally no war images
76 Haiku and Tanka Differences Tanka Haiku 13 centuries 3 centuries BeautyIs—ness31 syllables17 syllablesFeminineLyricalMasculineFragmentedReflectsAs it is
77 FormsRuba'IRuba'i is a four-line verse (quatrain) practiced by Arabian, Persian, Urdu, Azerbaijani (Azeri) poets.Famous for his rubaiyat (collection of quatrains) is the Persian poet Omar Khayyam.The most celebrated English renderings of the Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam were produced by Edward Fitzgerald…
78 They say the Lion and the Lizard keep The Courts where Jamshyd gloried and drank deep:And Bahram, that great Hunter—the Wild AssStamps o'er his Head, and he lies fast asleep.
79 Forms Sijo Sijo is a short musical lyric practiced by Korean poets. It is usually written as three lines, each averaging syllables, for a total of syllables. There is a pause in the middle of each line and so, in English, a sijo is sometimes printed in six lines rather than three.
80 You ask how many friends I have? Water and stone, bamboo and pine. The moon rising over the eastern hill is a joyful comrade.Besides these five companions, what other pleasure should I ask?
81 FormsOdeOdes were first developed by poets writing in ancient Greek, such as Pindarand Latin, such as Horace.The ode generally has three parts: a strophe, an antistrophe, and an epode.The antistrophes of the ode possess similar metrical structures and, depending on the tradition, similar rhyme structures.The epode is written with a different scheme and structure.Odes have a formal poetic diction, and generally deal with a serious subject.The strophe and antistrophe look at the subject from different, often conflicting, perspectives, with the epode moving to a higher level to either view or resolve the underlying issues.Odes are often intended to be recited or sung by two choruses (or individuals), with the first reciting the strophe, the second the antistrophe, and both together the epode.
82 Ode To A Nightingale by John Keats My heart aches, and a drowsy numbness painsMy sense, as though of hemlock I had drunk,Or emptied some dull opiate to the drainsOne minute past, and Lethe-wards had sunk:'Tis not through envy of thy happy lot,But being too happy in thine happiness,That thou, light-winged Dryad of the treesIn some melodious plotOf beechen green, and shadows numberless,Singest of summer in full-throated ease.O, for a draught of vintage! that hath beenCool'd a long age in the deep-delved earth,Tasting of Flora and the country green,Dance, and Provençal song, and sunburnt mirth!O for a beaker full of the warm South,Full of the true, the blushful Hippocrene,With beaded bubbles winking at the brim,And purple-stained mouth;That I might drink, and leave the world unseen,And with thee fade away into the forest dim:
83 FormsCinquainWhile "quintain" is the general term applied to poetic forms using a 5-line pattern, there are specific forms within that category that are defined by specific rules and guidelines.
84 Line1: One wordLine2: Two wordsLine 3: Three wordsLine 4: Four wordsLine 5: One wordLine1: A nounLine2: Two adjectivesLine 3: Three -ing wordsLine 4: A phraseLine 5: Another word for the nounKnightsArmour ,shieldsFighting, charging, slaughteringWorried, delighted, brave, fearsomeCrusadersSpaghettiMessy, spicySlurping, sliding, fallingBetween my plate and mouthDelicious
85 Line1: Two syllablesLine2: Four syllablesLine 3: Six syllablesLine 4: Eight syllablesLine 5: Two syllablesListen...With faint dry sound,Like steps of passing ghosts,The leaves, frost-crisp'd, break from the treesAnd fall.
86 FormsLimmerickA limerick is a five-line poem with a strict form (AABBA), which intends to be witty or humorous, and is sometimes obscene with humorous intent.It may have its roots in the 18th century Maigue Poets of Ireland, although the form can be found in England in the early years of the century.
87 There once was a man from Peru, Who dreamed of eating his shoe,He awoke with a fright,In the middle of the night,And found that his dream had come true!Laura Black
88 GenresA poetic genre is generally a tradition or classification of poetry based on the subject matter, style, or other broader literary characteristics
89 Genres Narrative poetry Narrative poetry is a genre of poetry that tells a story. Broadly it subsumes epic poetry, but the term "narrative poetry" is often reserved for smaller works, generally with more appeal to human interest.Narrative poetry may be the oldest type of poetry. Many scholars of Homer have concluded that his Iliad and Odyssey were composed from compilations of shorter narrative poems that related individual episodes and were more suitable for an evening's entertainment.Notable narrative poets have included Ovid, Dante, Juan Ruiz, Chaucer, William Langland, Luís de Camões, Shakespeare, Alexander Pope, Robert Burns, Fernando de Rojas, Adam Mickiewicz, Alexander Pushkin, Edgar Allan Poe and Alfred Tennyson.
90 GenresEpic poetryEpic poetry is a genre of poetry, and a major form of narrative literature. It recounts, in a continuous narrative, the life and works of a heroic or mythological person or group of persons.Examples of epic poems are Homer's Iliad and Odyssey, Virgil's Aeneid, the Nibelungenlied, Luís de Camões' Os Lusíadas, the Cantar de Mio Cid, the Epic of Gilgamesh, the Mahabharata, Valmiki's Ramayana, Ferdowsi's Shahnama, Nizami (or Nezami)'s Khamse (Five Books), and the Epic of King Gesar.
91 Genres Epic poetry Nine main characteristics opens in medias res. The setting is vast, covering many nations, the world or the universe.begins with an invocation to a muse.starts with a statement of the theme.the use of epithets.includes long lists.features long and formal speeches.shows divine intervention on human affairs."Star" heroes that embody the values of the civilization.
92 Genres Dramatic poetry Dramatic poetry is drama written in verse to be spoken or sung, and appears in varying, sometimes related forms in many cultures. Verse drama may have developed out of earlier oral epics, such as the Sanskrit and Greek epics.Examples of dramatic poetry in Persian literature include Nezami's two famous dramatic works, Layla and Majnun and Khosrow and Shirin, Ferdowsi's tragedies such as Rostam and Sohrab, Rumi's Masnavi, Gorgani's tragedy of Vis and Ramin,[84and Vahshi's tragedy of Farhad.
93 Genres Satirical poetry Poetry can be a powerful vehicle for satire. The punch of an insult delivered in verse can be many times more powerful and memorable than that of the same insult, spoken or written in prose. The Romans had a strong tradition of satirical poetry, often written for political purposes. A notable example is the Roman poet Juvenal's satires, whose insults stung the entire spectrum of society.The same is true of the English satirical tradition.Notable satirical poems were written by Juvenal of the Roman Empire, Thomas Shadwell and John Dryden, John Wilmot, and Alexander Pope. The greatest satirical poets outside England include Poland's Ignacy Krasicki, Azerbaijan's Sabir and Portugal's Manuel Maria Barbosa du Bocage, commonly known as Bocage.
94 GenresLyric poetryLyric poetry is a genre that, unlike epic poetry and dramatic poetry, does not attempt to tell a story but instead is of a more personal nature. It portrays the poet's own feelings, states of mind, and perceptions. While the genre's name, derived from "lyre," implies that it is intended to be sung, much lyric poetry is meant purely for reading.Though lyric poetry has long celebrated love, many courtly-love poets also wrote lyric poems about war and peace, nature and nostalgia, grief and loss. Notable among these are the 15th century French lyric poets, Christine de Pizan and Charles, Duke of Orléans. Spiritual and religious themes were addressed by such mystic lyric poets as St. John of the Cross and Teresa of Ávila. The tradition of lyric poetry based on spiritual experience was continued by later poets such as John Donne, Gerard Manley Hopkins, Antonio Machado and T. S. Eliot.Though the most popular form for western lyric poetry to take may be the 14-line sonnet, as practiced by Petrarch and Shakespeare, lyric poetry shows a bewildering variety of forms, including increasingly, in the 20th century, unrhymed ones. Lyric poetry is the most common type of poetry, as it deals intricately with an author's own emotions and views.Others take on a more free style pattern, without any clear pattern. This can be said of rap lyrics, considered by some to be poetry with a beat.
95 GenresElegyAn elegy is a mournful, melancholy or plaintive poem, especially a lament for the dead or a funeral song. The term "elegy," which originally denoted a type of poetic meter (elegiac meter), commonly describes a poem of mourning. An elegy may also reflect something that seems to the author to be strange or mysterious. The elegy, as a reflection on a death, on a sorrow more generally, or on something mysterious, may be classified as a form of lyric poetry. In a related sense that harks back to ancient poetic traditions of sung poetry, the word "elegy" may also denote a type of musical work, usually of a sad or somber nature.Elegiac poetry has been written since antiquity. Notable practitioners have included Propertius (lived ca. 50 BCE – ca. 15 BCE), Jorge Manrique (1476), Jan Kochanowski (1580), Chidiock Tichborne (1586), Edmund Spenser (1595), Ben Jonson (1616), John Milton (1637), Thomas Gray (1750), Charlotte Turner Smith (1784), William Cullen Bryant (1817), Percy Bysshe Shelley (1821), Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1823), Evgeny Baratynsky (1837), Alfred Tennyson (1849), Walt Whitman (1865), Louis Gallet (lived 1835–98), Antonio Machado (1903), Juan Ramón Jiménez (1914), William Butler Yeats (1916), Rainer Maria Rilke (1922), Virginia Woolf (1927), Federico García Lorca (1935), Kamau Brathwaite (born 1930).
96 GenresVerse fableThe fable is an ancient, near-ubiquitous literary genre, often (though not invariably) set in verse. It is a succinct story that features anthropomorphized animals, plants, inanimate objects, or forces of nature that illustrate a moral lesson (a "moral"). Verse fables have used a variety of meter and rhyme patterns; Ignacy Krasicki, for example, in his Fables and Parables, used 13-syllable lines in rhyming couplets.Notable verse fabulists have included Aesop (mid-6th century BCE), Vishnu Sarma (ca. 200 BCE), Phaedrus (15 BCE–50 CE), Marie de France (12th century), Robert Henryson (fl ), Biernat of Lublin (1465?–after 1529), Jean de La Fontaine (1621–95), Ignacy Krasicki (1735–1801), Félix María de Samaniego (1745 – 1801), Tomás de Iriarte (1750 – 1791), Ivan Krylov (1769–1844) and Ambrose Bierce (1842–1914). All of Aesop's translators and successors owe a debt to that semi-legendary fabulist.
97 GenresVerse fableAn example of a verse fable is Krasicki's "The Lamb and the Wolves":Aggression ever finds cause if sufficiently pressed.Two wolves on the prowl had trapped a lamb in the forestAnd were about to pounce. Quoth the lamb: "What right have you?""You're toothsome, weak, in the wood." — The wolves dined sans ado.
98 GenresProse poetryProse poetry is a hybrid genre that shows attributes of both prose and poetry. It may be indistinguishable from the micro-story (aka the "short short story," "flash fiction"). It qualifies as poetry because of its conciseness, use of metaphor, and special attention to language.While some examples of earlier prose strike modern readers as poetic, prose poetry is commonly regarded as having originated in 19th-century France, where its practitioners included Aloysius Bertrand, Charles Baudelaire, Arthur Rimbaud and Stéphane Mallarmé.