Organizational Behaviour Social Behaviour Groups and Teamwork.
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Organizational Behaviour Social Behaviour Groups and Teamwork
Defining groups A collection of two or more interacting individuals who share a common goal –Task force (project groups) = temporary group put together to achieve a specific goal or solve a specific goal –Committee = permanent groups to handle recurring issues that cannot not be handled by the normal hierarchical system.
Dynamics of group performance??
The effects of group size Performance – depends on the type of task –Additive – potential created by adding performance together –Disjunctive – potential determined by the best member –Conjunctive – potential determined by weakest member - related to social loafing (free rider or sucker effect) Satisfaction - the larger the group the less the satisfaction level
Team size and productivity Total Productivity Mean productivity per member
Group formation – group development Tuckman’s stage development model –Forming – finding out about group members and the task –Storming – conflict about leadership and the task –Norming – developing norms and cohesion –Performing – getting the job done –Adjourning – leaving the group
Group formation – group development Punctuated equilibrium model –Phase 1 – the group develops then maintains an interaction pattern and approach to the task –Midpoint transition – a dramatic change in interaction patterns or task approach –Phase 2 – the interaction pattern or approach to the task continues from the transition
Group norms Generally agreed upon informal rules that guide group member behaviour –Can be prescriptive or proscriptive Examples - Dress norms or performance norms
Group cohesion/cohesiveness The strength of members’ desires to remain part of their group Influenced by: –Time spent together –External threat and competition –Success –Member diversity –Size –Initiation rights
The relationship between norms, cohesion and team performance Moderately high task performance High task performance Moderately low task performance Low task performance Low Cohesion High Cohesion Team norms compatible with organizational objectives Team norms in conflict with organizational objectives
The relationship between norms, cohesion and team performance Increase interactions Encourage face-to-face interactions, set groups goals, use teamwork Increase cohesion Assign tasks based on team preferences, create shared successes, create external competition Increase interactions Encourage face-to-face interactions, set groups goals, use teamwork Reduce interactions Divide work, reduce face-to-face contact, individualize feedback Align norms with organization Reward good performance, clarify the goals, be a role model Reduce interactions Divide work, reduce face-to-face contact, individualize feedback Reduce cohesion Use individual rewards, create internal competition Low CohesionHigh Cohesion Team norms compatible with organizational objectives Team norms in conflict with organizational objectives