Presentation on theme: "Writing Good Training Material Objectives By Sylvia A"— Presentation transcript:
1Writing Good Training Material Objectives By Sylvia A Writing Good Training Material Objectives By Sylvia A. Miller Senior Consultant Spherion and Mindy Hoffbauer Training, Testing & Technical Documentation Northrop Grumman Litton TASC
2Session ObjectivesGiven your full attention and participation, at the end of this session, you will be able to do the following with at least 70% accuracy:Describe the differences and similarities between writing user documentation and training materials.Write objectives with specific performances, conditions, and criteria.Describe how well-written objectives are a win-win for instructors and students.This session does not cover all the basics of good instructional design (couldn’t cover in the time given). So today we’re focusing on the most important component of ID: well-written objectives.
3Exercise #1 Read the article, “The 25 Faces of Pamela Gien” You may take as many notes as you wishYou have exactly four minutesPlease turn in your articles
4Quiz for Exercise #1 Name the headers and footers for this article. To whom is the photo credited?Name the drop cap used.What were the seven elements of the article written in a sans serif font?This is a serif font. This is a sans serif font.If one was used, what was the end-of-article signifier (symbol)?
5Answers for Exercise #1 Name the headers and footers for this article. Headers: O (magazine’s name), “gems” (magazine section name)Footers: 117 (pg. #), 2001 May (issue date)To whom is the photo credited?Michael LamontName the drop cap used.W
6Answers for Exercise #1What were the seven elements of the article written in a sans serif font?Article’s title, author’s name, drop cap, pull quote, photo caption, photo credit, issue dateIf one was used, what was the end-of-article signifier (symbol)?Solid circle ()
7Problems? Without objectives, students don’t know What to write in their notesWhat to pay attention toWhat will be included on the testWhat they’re supposed to be learningEver been in this situation?
8Objectives for Exercise #1 After reading this article, students will be able to:Identify (name) headers and footersIdentify (name) photo creditsIdentify (name) drop capsIdentify (name) sans serif textIdentify (name) the end-of-article signifierWouldn’t your notes have been different if we’d told you this before the quiz?
12Quiz for Exercise #2What was the trademarked name mentioned in the advertisement?Which two companies hold the copyright for this advertisement?What is the URL for obtaining more information about this product?Do the two companies noted in this advertisement have company logos?What is the toll-free number for obtaining more information about this product?
13Answers for Exercise #2What was the trademarked name mentioned in the advertisement?VaniqaWhich two companies hold the copyright for this advertisement?Bristol-Myers Squibb Company & The Gillette Company
14Answers for Exercise #2What is the URL for obtaining more information about this product?Do the two companies noted in this advertisement have company logos?Yes (Bristol-Myers Squibb has “sunburst,” Gillette has stylized “G”)What is the toll-free number for obtaining more information about this product?1-877-FACENEWS
15Success! With objectives identified, you were probably able to: better anticipate the types of questions that would be on the quiztake better (more specific) noteslearn more of what the instructor wanted you to learnscore much higher on the quiz
16About the Presenters Trainer/Educator to Tech Writer Sylvia A. MillerB.S.Ed., M.A. in EnglishSeveral years of teaching children & adultsExperience in WBT, CBT, and other training and documentation deliverablesTech Writer to TrainerMindy HoffbauerA.A., B.A., M.A. in English Language & Literature with technical writing certificationNo formal education in trainingHave been developing & delivering training globally
17About our Primary Source Mager, Robert F. Preparing Instructional Objectives: A Critical Tool in the Development of Effective Instruction. 3rd ed. Atlanta: Center for Effective Performance, 1997.
18About our Primary Source Preparing Instructional Objectives is from a collection of books on instructional design, called The New Mager Six-Pack.
19Brainstorming Activity: User Manuals & Training Materials What are some of the similarities between effective user manuals and effective training materials?What are some of the differences?
20Basics of Good Objectives How to determine objectivesImportance of good objectivesTerms to useTerms to avoidWhat not to includeWhat to include
21How to Determine Objectives Task listing. Compile a collection of tasks involved in carrying out the specific work or play action.Task analysis. List the components of the task; what a competent person does when performing the task; steps followed; decisions made; how to tell when the task is complete.
22How to Determine Objectives Skill derivation. Ask what would anyone have to know or be able to do before being ready to practice this entire task. For example, interviewing a person??Objectives drafting. Draft the objectives describing the limits--the amount of skill that anyone would need to perform the various tasks.
23Importance of Good Objectives Purpose: to describe how a learner will demonstrate knowledge, comprehension, and ability to perform a specific task.Need: if well-designed, ensures that a training solution teaches.Function: communicates an intended instructional result to students. Conveys picture of what a successful learner will be able to do.
24Importance of Good Objectives They lay foundation by providing primary criteria for evaluatinglearner achievementsuccess of instructionoverall quality of the training solution
25Importance of Good Objectives Help point to specific issues or content to be covered in instructionThis is a win for the instructor, writer, and/or instructional designer because…It’s also a win for the student because…Win-win--a benefit to all involved.
26Terms to Use & Terms to Avoid Remember the phrase “Communicates an intended instructional result to students”?How do you best communicate the intended instructional result?Mager says, “The best statement is one that excludes the greatest number of possible meanings other than your intent.”He advises us to avoid words that are “slippery,” too broad, or “fuzzies.”
27The “No-No Words” for Objectives Terms open to many interpretations:to knowto understand, or to really understandto appreciate, or to fully appreciateto grasp the significance ofto enjoyto believe, conceptualizeto internalize
28Preferred Words for Objectives Terms open to fewer interpretations:to write, to recite, to identifyto sort, to solveto construct, to buildto compare, to contrastto smileIn short, make objectives specific, observable, measurable.
29What Not to Include in an Objective Instructional procedures. (Serves no purpose; could be limiting.) Mention only outcomes when writing objectives.Target audience. For example, “Secretaries will be able to bold words when directed by their boss to stress something in a memo.” Wouldn’t other people also need to know how to use the bold feature? Waste of time to write different objective for each audience.
30What to Include in an Objective Mager says good objectives contain three parts:Performance: What should the learner be able to do?Condition(s): Under what conditions should the learner be able to do this?Criterion: How well must it be done?
31PerformanceA good objective clearly states what the student is expected to be able to do or to produce to be considered competentThis shows both the instructor and the student that the training has been successful.
32Visible & Invisible Performance Performance that is visible or audible is OVERTrunning, cooking, yodelingPerformance that is not observable is COVERTidentifying, solving, distinguishing
33Key Ingredient of Objectives An objective that does not include an observable performance is not yet an objective.Objective
34Covert PerformanceWhen performance is covert, add an indicator behavior so the performance can be observedAn indicator behavior is simple, direct, and something students can already dosay, name, point to, circle, underline, sort
35Performance Examples Overt Covert Covert with Indicator Behavior Be able to typeCovertBe able to discriminate between daisies and rosesCovert with Indicator Behaviorby sortingby pointingby circling
36Intent vs IndicatorMake sure your objective contains your intent and not just an indicator behaviorBe able to circle processes on a flow chartIs intention of training really to teach students how to circle?Be able to recognize (circle) processes on a flow chart
37Conditions Makes the objective even more specific. Eliminates the need for guesswork by the student.Detailed enough to describe each of the conditions needed to allow the performance to happen.Makes accurate measurement of learner performance even easier, and makes development of material easier.
38Questions to Ask Yourself What will the learner be expected to use when performing (tools, forms, etc.)?What will the learner not be allowed to use when performing (checklists, job aids, cheat sheets)?What will be the real-world conditions under which the performance will be expected to occur (in front of an audience, in a cockpit, under water)?
39Can You Identify the Condition? Given a list of factors leading to significant historical events, be able to identify (underline) at least five factors contributing to the crash of 1929.Given a list of chemical elements, be able to recall (write) the valences of each.While blindfolded, and presented with wine samples, be able to recognize (say) which samples were aged in oak casks.
40CriteriaA good objective describes how well a student would have to perform to be considered competentAdding a criterion to an objective will provide a way to measure a student’s competence of a particular task.
41Criteria A criterion added to an objective will provide: a testing standarda success measurement for studentsa success measurement for the instructorA criterion should name appropriate or desired ability, not a minimum levelSome criteria may be: speed, quantity, quality, accuracy
42CriteriaBe careful when adding criteria not to turn the objective into a test questionBe able to write four proposals in five daysSounds more like a test than an objectiveMay confuse objectives rather than clarifyMay want to point to reference when setting criterion if it states criteria wellBe able to write a design document that meets guidelines in J-STD-016
43Performance, Condition or Criteria? Given a Request for Proposal (RFP),conditionbe able to write a proposalperformancein 24 hourscriteriawith 2% or less error rate.criteria
44Summary Thus Far...1. An instructional objective describes an intended outcome of instruction, rather than the procedures for accomplishing those outcomes.2. An objective always states a performance describing what the learner will be DOING when demonstrating mastery of the objective.
45Summary Thus Far...3. When the main intent of an objective is covert, an indicator behavior is added.4. Indicator behaviors are always the simplest, most direct behaviors possible; always something that every trainee already knows how to do well.
46Summary Thus Far... 5. To prepare an objective: Communicate the main intent or performance expected of the student.If the performance is covert, add an indicator behavior through which the main intent can be detected.Describe relevant or important conditions under which the performance is expected to occur. Add as much description as is needed to communicate the intent.
47The Good, the Bad and the Fixable Ready for another exercise?Reach for “Objectives Needing a Facelift.”Work with the people at your table to analyze three weak objectives and rewrite five badly written objectives so they’re effective.
48Sending Junior to College Here’s another exercise:Junior and friends are off to college soonDevelop training materials to teach them a useful skill before leaving homeGroup AWrite objectives for teaching them how to make pizza from scratchGroup BWrite objectives for teaching them how to do laundry
49Here’s What You Now Know about Objectives They ensure that the training solution teaches/succeeds by laying the foundation for the evaluation of the student and training solutionAre a win-win for both student and instructor
50Here’s What You Now Know about Objectives They describe what the student will demonstrate (performance); are observable, measurableInclude conditions and criteriaUse terms that are open to little interpretationDo not include instructional procedures or target audience
51So Go Forth……and write much better training materials!