Ethical Issues in Research and Scholarship Ethical Issues in Research
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Presentation on theme: "Ethical Issues in Research and Scholarship Ethical Issues in Research"— Presentation transcript:
1 Ethical Issues in Research and Scholarship Ethical Issues in Research CHAPTERCHAPTER 4Ethical Issues in Research and ScholarshipEthical Issuesin Researchand Scholarship
2 Seven Areas of Scientific Dishonesty 1. Plagiarism—using the ideas, writings, and drawings of others as your own2. Fabrication and falsification—making up or altering data3. Nonpublication of data , also called “cooking data”4. Faulty data-gathering procedures5. Poor data storage and retention(continued)
3 Seven Areas of Scientific Dishonesty 6. Misleading authorship—who should be an author?- Technicians do not necessarily become joint authors.- Authorship should involve only those who contribute directly.- Discuss authorship before the project!(continued)
4 Seven Areas of Scientific Dishonesty 7. Sneaky publication practices- Joint publication
5 Ethical Issues Regarding Copyright • What is “fair use” of materials?- Purpose: Commercial or educational?- Nature: Is copying expected?- Amount: How much is copied?- Effect: What is the influence on the market?• For teaching: Articles, chapters, overheads, slides, PowerPoint presentations• For research: Figures and tables, standardized tests, questionnaires, previously published scholarly work• If you are unsure, ask permission!
6 Model for Considering Scientific Misconduct • Scientific misconduct Sanctions• Scientific mistakes Remedial activities• Causes of scientific misconduct- Pressure to publish- Need to complete graduate work- Desire to continue funding- Desire for academic rewards
7 History of Ethical Treatment of Subjects Nazi war experimentsTuskegee syphilis study
8 Ethical Issues in Human and Animal Research • Institutional review boards• Humans- Informed consent- Human participants committee• Animals- Justification- Value of animal models• Conflicts of interest- Funded research projects- Using students (classes) and volunteers
9 Protecting Human Participants • What should human research participants expect?- Right to privacy or nonparticipation- Right to remain anonymous- Right to confidentiality
10 Uvic Ethics Minimal Risk (2 reviewers) The research can be regarded as within the range of minimal risk if potential participants can reasonably be expected to regard the probability and magnitude of possible harms implied by participation in the research to be no greater than those encountered by the participant in those aspects of his or her everyday life that relate to the research.Above that threshold = full ethics committee approval
11 Age to give informed consent For minimal risk studies:competent children under age 13 years give own consent and parents/guardians give consent;competent youth ages years give own consent and parents/guardians are informed of the study;competent youth ages give consent and parent/guardians may be informed of the study.For above minimal risk studies:Normally, both parental/guardian and youth consent are required up to age 19.
12 Need to fully disclose the Risk Physical: Pain, scarring, infection, side effects etc.Social: Loss of status r respect, alienation, change in relationships etc.Psychological/emotional:Fear, anxiety, sadness, depressionEconomic: Loss of salary, loss of job
13 Elements of Informed Consent • A fair explanation of the procedures to be followed, including identification of those that are experimental• A description of the attendant discomforts and risks• A description of the benefits to be expected• A disclosure of appropriate alternative procedures that would be advantageous for the participant• An offer to answer any inquiries concerning the procedures• An instruction that the participant is free to withdraw at any time