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Biochemistry. Matter Anything that has mass and takes up space.

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Presentation on theme: "Biochemistry. Matter Anything that has mass and takes up space."— Presentation transcript:

1 Biochemistry

2 Matter Anything that has mass and takes up space

3 Atoms basic building blocks of matter that make up everyday objects –90 naturally occurring kinds of atoms –Scientists have been able to make about 25 more

4 Element Made of only 1 type of atom

5 Elements to Know Carbon (C) Hydrogen (H) Oxygen (O) Nitrogen (N) Phosphorous (P)


7 Compounds 2 or more types of atoms combined in a fixed ratio H 2 O: Water CO 2 : Carbon Dioxide

8 Water Polar molecule: molecule with regions of + and – charges Cohesion: attraction between molecules of the same substance Adhesion: attraction between molecules of 2 different substances –Capillary action Solid ice is less dense than liquid water

9 Organic vs. Inorganic Compounds Organic Compounds: contain carbon –Almost always contains hydrogen –Usually contain oxygen and nitrogen Inorganic Compounds: do not contain carbon –Exceptions Carbon dioxide Calcium carbonate

10 Macromolecules Large molecules formed by joining smaller molecules together Biological Macromolecules are arranged in 4 categories –(1) Carbohydrates –(2) Lipids –(3) Proteins –(4) Nucleic Acids

11 Polymers Molecules made from repeating units of monomers (small molecule) Monomer Polymer

12 Monomers Polymers

13 1. Carbohydrates Store energy and provide structural support Contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen Formula (CH 2 O) n –n indicates # of units in the chain

14 Carbohydrates Sugars (end in –ose) –Monosaccharides: 1 sugar –Disaccharides: 2 sugars –Polysaccharides: many sugars

15 Storage of Sugars organisms store excess sugar in polysaccharides –Starch: plants –Glycogen: animal

16 Structure Cellulose: cell wall in plants Chitin: shells of insects

17 How are disaccharides and polysaccharides made from monosaccharides? Dehydration Synthesis: Putting together Removing water

18 How are polysaccharides and disaccharides broken back down into monosaccharides? Hydrolysis: add water to break bond

19 2. Lipids Fats, oils, waxes Contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen Part of cell structures and serve as back up energy supply

20 Fat structure Glycerol + 3 fatty acids (combined by dehydration synthesis) hydrophillic hydrophobic

21 Saturated vs. Unsaturated Fats Saturated: all single Carbon to Carbon bonds (straight chain) Unsaturated: one or more double bonds (bent chain) oils butter

22 3. Proteins Contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen –Can contain sulfur and phosphorous Cell communication, enzymes, structure, antibodies

23 Amino Acid Carboxyl group Amino group

24 20 Amino Acids

25 Protein Structure Amino acids bonded together by dehydration synthesis

26 Peptide Bond Bond which forms between amino group of one amino acid and carboxyl group of another amino acid

27 Dipeptide: 2 amino acids bonded together Polypeptide: long chain of amino acids


29 4. Nucleic Acids Contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, phosphorous, and nitrogen Include DNA and RNA Hereditary material protein synthesis

30 DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid Long chain of repeating nucleotides –5 carbon sugar (deoxyribose), phosphate group, nitrogen base Double helix 2 strands

31 RNA Ribonucleic acid 5 carbon sugar (ribose), phosphate group, nitrogen base One Strand

32 Deoxyribose vs. Ribose

33 Macromolecule (Polymer) Building Block (Monomer) CarbohydrateMonosaccharides (sugars) LipidsFatty Acids ProteinsAmino Acids Nucleic AcidNucleotides


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