2 Learning Objectives In this chapter, you will learn about: Basic functions of electronic commerce softwareCharacteristics to look for in an externally hosted electronic commerce solutionElectronic store modelsSoftware for small electronic commerce sites
3 Learning Objectives (cont.) Software for medium-sized to large electronic commerce sitesElectronic commerce solutions for large organizations with an existing infrastructureSupply chain management softwareCustomer relationship management softwareAutomated content management software
4 Electronic Commerce Software Basics The expected size of the enterprise and its projected traffic and salesBudgetDetermine your target commerce audience.Use a full-service ISP or host the electronic commerce site in-house.
5 Electronic Commerce Software Components A catalog displayShopping cart capabilitiesTransaction processingTools to populate the store catalog and to maintain the catalogTools to create and edit other site content
6 Catalog DisplayA small commerce site can have a simple catalog, which is a static listing of goods and services.Larger catalogs have photos of items, descriptions, and a search feature.For example, “MP3.com” is a large commerce site and “Women in Music” is a small site.
11 Shopping CartThe Web is a stateless system unable to remember anything from one transmission or session to another.It must distinguish from shopper from another.One way to uniquely identify users and to store information about their choices is to create and store cookies.
12 Transaction Processing Transaction processing occurs when the shopper proceeds to the virtual checkout counter.Transaction processing is the trickiest part of the electronic sale.Software needs to calculate price, volume discounts, sales tax, and shipping costs.Sales tax may vary in different states.
13 Transaction Processing Some electronic commerce software provides connections to accounting software so that Web sales can be entered simultaneously.Connections between electronic commerce software and the accounting software are handled by a separate type of software called middleware.Major middleware vendors include BEA Systems, Broadvision, Digital River, and IBM Tivoli Systems.
14 Electronic Commerce Tools Inexpensive storefronts are offered by established portals, such as Yahoo!Robust software suites run on large, dedicated computers and interact with database systems, such as Oracle.B2B systems must be able to connect to existing legacy systems, including ERP software packages.
15 Application ServersA group of electronic software packages known as application servers give these companies the power and flexibility they need.An application server is software that takes the request messages received by the Web server and performs some kind of action based on the contents of these messages.The actions that the application server software perform are determined by the rules used in the business.These rules are called business logic.
16 Application ServersApplication server software is grouped into two types: page-based and component-based.A page-based application server returns pages generated by scripts that include the rules for presenting data on the Web page with the business logic.Common page-based systems include Macromedia’s Coldfusion, Java server pages, Microsoft’s Active server pages, and PHP.
17 Application ServersA component-based application server separates the presentation logic from the business logic.Each component of logic is created in its own module.Common component-based systems include Enterprise JavaBeans, Microsoft’s Component Object Model, and the Common Object Request Broker Architecture.
18 Application ServersApplication server software licenses range in cost from $2,000 to $35,000.Companies selling products in this category include Borland’s AppServer, Hewlett-Packard’s Total eServer, iPlanet’s Application Server, IBM’s WebSphere Application Server, Oracle’s Oracle Application Server, and Sybase’s EAServer.
19 Application ServersApplication servers usually obtain the business logic information that they use to build Web pages from databases.A database manager is software that stores information in a highly structured way.Large information systems that store the same data in many different locations are called distributed information systems.
20 Application ServersMany B2B commerce systems must be able to connect to existing information systems, such as enterprise resource planning (ERP) software.
22 Content Management Tools Most commerce software comes with wizards and other automated methods for creating template-driven pages.A number of companies offer content management tools.Some of these tools are extensions of Web site creation tools.Macromedia Spectra is one such tool and it works with Dreamweaver and Dreamweaver UltraDev.
23 Commerce Hosting Services The total cost of setting up your own in-house Web commerce site is expensive.Web hosting services allow businesses to start electronic commerce inexpensively.Web hosting services provide all the services that an ISP does.
24 Basic Electronic Commerce Software Packages Basic packages are free or low-cost electronic commerce software supplied by the Web host for building electronic commerce sites that will be kept on the host’s server.Services in this category usually cost less than a few hundred dollars per month, and the software is available on the host site, allowing companies to immediately begin building and storing a storefront on the host’s server.
25 Basic Host ServicesHosting services in this class offer adequate space for a Web store and for forms-based shopping, but do not provide shopping carts.Often, they do not include transaction-processing.Examples of these types of hosts are BizLand.com and HyperMart.Customer purchase transactions are handled by in this host service.
26 Shared Mall-Style Hosting Shared hosting sites provide online stores with good services, good Web creation tools, and little or not banner advertising clutter.Web hosts in this group charge a monthly fee, a setup fee, and may also charge a percentage for fixed amount for each customer transaction.Mall-style hosts provide shopping cart software or the ability to use another vendor’s shopping cart software.
27 Shared Mall-Style Hosting Mall-style hosting also offers transaction-processing through one of a few merchant services.These merchant services allow customers to choose to purchase their goods and services with a credit card, electronic cash, or other form of payment.Quality Web hosts in this category include Bigstep, Yahoo! Store, FedEx eCommerce Builder, and eBay Stores.
28 Shared Mall-Style Hosting Electronic commerce stores get a variety of services for a low monthly fee.Web hosting customers have their own domain name and IP address.Advantages of a shared Web host over dedicated hosting or self-hosting:Low setup feeNo staff and capital costsFree technical support
29 Yahoo! StoreYahoo! Store is a good value among full-service shared hosting sites.Merchants can create, change, and maintain their Yahoo! storefronts through a Web browser.On its own site, Yahoo! holds all the stores’ pages in a proprietary format.Yahoo’s management page contains many management, reporting, and global site setting tools.
30 Bigstep.comBigstep.com provides a well-designed storefront package without charging hosting fees.Bigstep.com enables merchants to create, change, and maintain a storefront through a Web browser.Bigstep.com’s reports provide data mining capabilities.Data mining can help business find customers with common interests.
31 Bigstep.com Bigstep.com’s reports can answer the following questions: How many visitors are coming to the site?What is the average length of stay for each visitor on each page?Which pages lead to purchases?What advertisements or links have brought qualified visitors to the page or site?What is average number of pages that each visitor views?Are repeat customers attracted to this site?
32 Estimated Operating Expenses Operating CostsCost EstimateInitial site setup fee$200Annual maintenance fee (12 x $100)$1200Domain name registration$70Scanner for photo conversion or digital camera$500Photo editing$100Occasional HTML and design help$400Merchant credit card setup feeTotal first-year cost$2670
33 Estimated Operating Expenses The first-year operating costs can vary depending on the Web host selected.A good guideline for processing fees is to multiply your expected annual gross sales by 3%.Setup and Web site maintenance costs include: equipment, communications, physical location and staff.
34 Midrange PackagesMidrange packages allow the merchant to have explicit control over merchandising choices, site layout, internal architecture, and remote and local management options.Midrange software has connectivity with database systems and the store’s catalog information.INTERSHOP enfinity, WebSphere, and Commerce Server 2000 are examples of this type of software.
35 INTERSHOP EnfinityINTERSHOP enfinity is produced by INTERSHOP Communications Inc.This software provides:search and catalog capabilitieselectronic shopping cartsonline credit card transaction processingconnection to existing business systems and databases, such as DB2 and OracleIt has setup wizards and catalog and data management tools.
36 WebSphere Commerce Suite IBM produces the WebSphere Commerce Suite.It comes complete with catalog templates, setup wizards, and advanced catalog tools.It can be used both for B2B and B2C applications.This system runs on AIX, Solaris, and Windows NT operating systems.
37 Commerce Server 2000 Microsoft creates the Commerce Server 2000. Commerce Server 2000 provides tools for:User profiling and managementTransaction processingProduct and service managementTarget audience marketing
38 Commerce Server 2000Microsoft pipelines model a series of business processes:The Commerce Interchange Pipeline for B2BThe Order-processing Pipeline for B2CCommerce Server 2000 has tools for advertising, promotions, cross-selling and customer targeting and personalization.
39 Solutions for Large Firms Enterprise-level commerce software is called e-business software.E-business software interacts with a wide variety of existing back office systems, including database, accounting, and ERP systems.
40 Enterprise Solutions for Large Firms An enterprise-scale solution requires:a Domain Name Server (DNS)an SMTP system to handlean HTTP serveran FTP server for upload and download capabilitiesa database server
41 Enterprise Solutions for Large Firms Examples of e-business systems:IBM’s WebSphere Commerce Suite, Pro EditionNetscape’s Netscape CommerceXpertOracle’s iStorePandesic Web Business solution (Intel and SAP)
43 Customer Relationship Management Software The goal of CRM is to understand each customer’s specific needs and then customize a product or service so that it meets those needs.CRM software must obtain data from operations software that conducts activities, such as sales automation, customer service center operations, and marketing campaigns.Siebel Systems’ E-Business 7 is one of the leading comprehensive CRM packages.Oracle Global CRM, PeopleSoft CRM, and MySAP CRM are other CRM products.