2 Chapter Objectives (1 of 3) Understand the difference between psychiatric and psychological criminology.Know the gist of psychoanalytic theory, including Freudian elements of personality and defense mechanisms.Know how psychoanalytic theory and psychoanalysis has been applied to delinquents and criminals.
3 Chapter Objectives (2 of 3) Comprehend the principles of learning (operant conditioning, classical conditioning, and observational learning) and how they relate to theories of crime.Understand the two areas of cognitive psychology (cognitive structure and cognitive content) and how they have been applied to criminal behavior.
4 Chapter Objectives (3 of 3) Distinguish between general personality research and research on criminal personality.Grasp the concepts involved in the debate on the relationship between IQ and criminal behavior.Know the policy implications derived from theories of learning, personality, and cognition.
5 You Are the Criminologist The BTK KillerDennis L. RaderBTK: bind, torture, killConvicted of killing 10 peopleDiscussionHow might a Freudian theorist explain Rader’s letters?Does Rader show signs of being a psychopath?What characteristics do or do not fit?
6 IntroductionHow does a psychologist or psychiatrist develop and understand the criminal mind?What does psychology contribute to the study of the criminal mind?What is the psychological approach to the study of crime?
7 Psychoanalytic Theory Henry Maudsley (1835–1918): Criminals suffer from “moral degeneracy,” a deficiency of moral sense.Sigmund Freud (1856–1939): One can understand human behavior best by examining early childhood experiences.
8 Freudian Elements of Personality Conscious v. Unconscious MindIdSuperegoEgo
9 Freudian Elements of Personality Lester and Van VoorhisId: “If it feels good, do it!”Superego: conscience – “Stealing is wrong.”Ego: psychological thermostat that regulates the wishes of the id with the social restrictions of the superego.
10 Freudian Elements of Personality Two sources of anxiety1. Desire is not met.2. Unconscious desire becomesconscious.
11 Freudian Explanations of Delinquency Human nature is inherently antisocialId: infants start life with antisocial drivesSuperego: forms from experienceEgo: helps to negotiate demands for instant gratification with acceptable behavior
12 Policy Implications of Freudian Theory DrawbacksDifficult to test empiricallyCannot be directly observed and measuredStill maintains a place in psychology of criminal behavior
13 Behavioral Psychology Differs from psychoanalytical theoryFocuses on specific behaviorsAll behavior is learned
14 Principles of Learning Three types of learningClassical conditioningOperant conditioningObservational (vicarious) learning
17 Principles of Learning Positive reinforcement: increases the target behavior by rewarding the individualNegative reinforcement: increases the target behavior by removing an unpleasant stimulusPunishment: reduces the odds of the target behavior being repeated
18 Principles of Learning Direct parental control: theorists tie delinquency to parents’ failure to effectively condition their children away from negative behaviors
19 Principles of Learning Glueck and Glueck: inconsistent and harsh punishment correlates with delinquent childrenPatterson: effective parenting (monitoring, punishing, and reinforcing behavior) correlates with nondeliquent childrenHarris: parental behaviors have few effects on the child’s long-term development
21 Modeling TheoryObservational learning: role modeling the behavior of others.Albert Bandura (Bobo doll experiments): learning is not based on trial and error (operant conditioning).Effects on criminal behaviors are difficult to determine.
22 Media and CrimeDoes media (TV and movies) influence aggression, violence, and criminal behavior?Conducive to role modeling:Perpetrators not punishedTargets of violence show little painFew long-term negative consequences
23 Media and CrimeEvidence suggests that reducing exposure to media violence reduces aggression and violence in children.
24 Policy Implications of Behaviorism Criminals can learn pro-social behaviors to replace criminal actionsAversion therapyToken economy
25 Cognitive PsychologyHumans’ ability to engage in complex thoughts influences behaviorCognitions (like behaviors) can be learnedFocus onCognitive structure (how people think)Cognitive content (what people think)
26 Cognitive StructureKohlberg's theory of moral reasoning: humans advance through predictable stages of moral reasoningSelf-controlAbility to empathizeAbility to anticipate consequencesAbility to control anger
27 Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development (1 of 2) Right is blindly obeying those with power and authority.Emphasis is on avoiding punishment.Interests of others are not considered.Stage 2Right is furthering one’s own interests.Interests of others are important only as a way to satisfy self-interests.Stage 3Moral reasoning is motivated by loyalties to others and a desire to live up to other’s standards.
28 Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development (2 of 2) Right is following the rules of society and maintaining important social institutions (e.g., family, community).Stage 5Moral decisions are made by weighing individual rights against legal principles and the common good.Stage 6Moral decisions are based on universal principles (e.g., human dignity, desire for justice).Principles are considered across different contexts and are independent of the law.
29 Cognitive ContentRationalizations or denials that support criminal behaviorFor example, a criminal thinks, “I’m not really hurting anyone.”Criminals are more likely to express such thoughts, but the relationship (causation or correlation) to crime is unclear.Extremely common for sex offenders
30 Policy Implications of Cognitive Psychology Cognitive theory translates easily into practice.Cognitive skills programs teach offenders cognitive skills like moral reasoning, anger management, or self-control.
31 Policy Implications of Cognitive Psychology Cognitive restructuring attempts to change the content of an individual’s thoughts.Combination cognitive-behavioral programs have had significant success.
32 Personality and CrimeCrime and delinquency related to the presence of some personality traitPersonality trait: a characteristic of an individual that is stable over time and across different social circumstancesPersonality: the sum of personality traits that define a person
33 Theory in Action Multisystematic therapy (MST) Creator Scott Henggeler and associatesReduces criminal behaviorComprehensive approachTargets many areas for changeUses many different techniques (not just cognitive-behavioral programs)
34 Personality Traits and Crime A number of related traits combine to form super factorsSeveral different modelsFive-factor modelTellegen’s personality modelRecent studies use the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ)
35 Personality Traits and Crime (1 of 2) Personality dimensions in the MPQConstraintTraditionalismHarm avoidanceControlNegative emotionalityAggressionAlienationStress reaction
36 Personality Traits and Crime (2 of 2) Personality dimensions in the MPQPositive emotionalityAchievementSocial potencyWell-beingSocial closeness
37 Criminal Personality: The Psychopath Refers to a class of individuals with a distinct criminal personalityTerm widely misused throughout historyUnclear determining factorsPsychopathy checklist (PCL) looks for certain personality traitsCriticism: Are psychopaths qualitatively different from other offenders?
38 Policy Implications of Personality Theory Personality traits consistently predict delinquency and crime.Criticism: Personality traits are often portrayed as impossible to change.
39 You Are the Criminologist Does Dennis Rader (BTK) show signs of being a psychopath?What characteristics of psychopathy appear to fit with Rader?What characteristics do not?
40 Intelligence and Crime Feeblemindedness was once thought to be a cause of crime.What exactly is IQ and how does it relate to criminal behavior?
41 A Brief History of Intelligence Testing IQ tests measure mental differences from one person to another.Old methods included:Measuring one’s skull sizeTesting the ability to memorizeThese methods were determined to be insufficient.
42 A Brief History of Intelligence Testing IQ test devised to identify students who were performing poorly in school and needed academic assistanceNot meant to be a measuring device for intelligenceHas concerns of cultural bias
43 IQ and CrimeThere is an IQ gap of 8–10 points between criminals and noncriminals, even when statistically controlled for race and social class.IQ is not a very strong indicator of criminal behavior.
44 IQ and Crime Travis Hirschi and Michael Hindelang The Bell Curve Crime-IQ link consistently documentedCriminologists continue to study the relationship.
45 Policy Implications of the IQ-Crime Relationship Is IQ a measure of native intelligence or something else?Is IQ a direct cause of crime or does it influence other factors that cause criminal behavior?What do criminologists believe about IQ and its direct or indirect relationship to crime?
46 ConclusionThe common emphasis of all psychological theories is on the individual.Each theory must be evaluated on its ability to account for criminality.Not all theories are well supported by evidence.Many psychological theories translate well into treatment programs.