Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Chapter 5 Psychology and Crime

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Chapter 5 Psychology and Crime"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 5 Psychology and Crime

2 Chapter Objectives (1 of 3)
Understand the difference between psychiatric and psychological criminology. Know the gist of psychoanalytic theory, including Freudian elements of personality and defense mechanisms. Know how psychoanalytic theory and psychoanalysis has been applied to delinquents and criminals.

3 Chapter Objectives (2 of 3)
Comprehend the principles of learning (operant conditioning, classical conditioning, and observational learning) and how they relate to theories of crime. Understand the two areas of cognitive psychology (cognitive structure and cognitive content) and how they have been applied to criminal behavior.

4 Chapter Objectives (3 of 3)
Distinguish between general personality research and research on criminal personality. Grasp the concepts involved in the debate on the relationship between IQ and criminal behavior. Know the policy implications derived from theories of learning, personality, and cognition.

5 You Are the Criminologist
The BTK Killer Dennis L. Rader BTK: bind, torture, kill Convicted of killing 10 people Discussion How might a Freudian theorist explain Rader’s letters? Does Rader show signs of being a psychopath? What characteristics do or do not fit?

6 Introduction How does a psychologist or psychiatrist develop and understand the criminal mind? What does psychology contribute to the study of the criminal mind? What is the psychological approach to the study of crime?

7 Psychoanalytic Theory
Henry Maudsley (1835–1918): Criminals suffer from “moral degeneracy,” a deficiency of moral sense. Sigmund Freud (1856–1939): One can understand human behavior best by examining early childhood experiences.

8 Freudian Elements of Personality
Conscious v. Unconscious Mind Id Superego Ego

9 Freudian Elements of Personality
Lester and Van Voorhis Id: “If it feels good, do it!” Superego: conscience – “Stealing is wrong.” Ego: psychological thermostat that regulates the wishes of the id with the social restrictions of the superego.

10 Freudian Elements of Personality
Two sources of anxiety 1. Desire is not met. 2. Unconscious desire becomes conscious.

11 Freudian Explanations of Delinquency
Human nature is inherently antisocial Id: infants start life with antisocial drives Superego: forms from experience Ego: helps to negotiate demands for instant gratification with acceptable behavior

12 Policy Implications of Freudian Theory
Drawbacks Difficult to test empirically Cannot be directly observed and measured Still maintains a place in psychology of criminal behavior

13 Behavioral Psychology
Differs from psychoanalytical theory Focuses on specific behaviors All behavior is learned

14 Principles of Learning
Three types of learning Classical conditioning Operant conditioning Observational (vicarious) learning

15 Principles of Learning
Classical Conditioning

16 Principles of Learning
Operant Conditioning

17 Principles of Learning
Positive reinforcement: increases the target behavior by rewarding the individual Negative reinforcement: increases the target behavior by removing an unpleasant stimulus Punishment: reduces the odds of the target behavior being repeated

18 Principles of Learning
Direct parental control: theorists tie delinquency to parents’ failure to effectively condition their children away from negative behaviors

19 Principles of Learning
Glueck and Glueck: inconsistent and harsh punishment correlates with delinquent children Patterson: effective parenting (monitoring, punishing, and reinforcing behavior) correlates with nondeliquent children Harris: parental behaviors have few effects on the child’s long-term development

20 Principles of Learning

21 Modeling Theory Observational learning: role modeling the behavior of others. Albert Bandura (Bobo doll experiments): learning is not based on trial and error (operant conditioning). Effects on criminal behaviors are difficult to determine.

22 Media and Crime Does media (TV and movies) influence aggression, violence, and criminal behavior? Conducive to role modeling: Perpetrators not punished Targets of violence show little pain Few long-term negative consequences

23 Media and Crime Evidence suggests that reducing exposure to media violence reduces aggression and violence in children.

24 Policy Implications of Behaviorism
Criminals can learn pro-social behaviors to replace criminal actions Aversion therapy Token economy

25 Cognitive Psychology Humans’ ability to engage in complex thoughts influences behavior Cognitions (like behaviors) can be learned Focus on Cognitive structure (how people think) Cognitive content (what people think)

26 Cognitive Structure Kohlberg's theory of moral reasoning: humans advance through predictable stages of moral reasoning Self-control Ability to empathize Ability to anticipate consequences Ability to control anger

27 Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development (1 of 2)
Right is blindly obeying those with power and authority. Emphasis is on avoiding punishment. Interests of others are not considered. Stage 2 Right is furthering one’s own interests. Interests of others are important only as a way to satisfy self-interests. Stage 3 Moral reasoning is motivated by loyalties to others and a desire to live up to other’s standards.

28 Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development (2 of 2)
Right is following the rules of society and maintaining important social institutions (e.g., family, community). Stage 5 Moral decisions are made by weighing individual rights against legal principles and the common good. Stage 6 Moral decisions are based on universal principles (e.g., human dignity, desire for justice). Principles are considered across different contexts and are independent of the law.

29 Cognitive Content Rationalizations or denials that support criminal behavior For example, a criminal thinks, “I’m not really hurting anyone.” Criminals are more likely to express such thoughts, but the relationship (causation or correlation) to crime is unclear. Extremely common for sex offenders

30 Policy Implications of Cognitive Psychology
Cognitive theory translates easily into practice. Cognitive skills programs teach offenders cognitive skills like moral reasoning, anger management, or self-control.

31 Policy Implications of Cognitive Psychology
Cognitive restructuring attempts to change the content of an individual’s thoughts. Combination cognitive-behavioral programs have had significant success.

32 Personality and Crime Crime and delinquency related to the presence of some personality trait Personality trait: a characteristic of an individual that is stable over time and across different social circumstances Personality: the sum of personality traits that define a person

33 Theory in Action Multisystematic therapy (MST)
Creator Scott Henggeler and associates Reduces criminal behavior Comprehensive approach Targets many areas for change Uses many different techniques (not just cognitive-behavioral programs)

34 Personality Traits and Crime
A number of related traits combine to form super factors Several different models Five-factor model Tellegen’s personality model Recent studies use the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ)

35 Personality Traits and Crime (1 of 2)
Personality dimensions in the MPQ Constraint Traditionalism Harm avoidance Control Negative emotionality Aggression Alienation Stress reaction

36 Personality Traits and Crime (2 of 2)
Personality dimensions in the MPQ Positive emotionality Achievement Social potency Well-being Social closeness

37 Criminal Personality: The Psychopath
Refers to a class of individuals with a distinct criminal personality Term widely misused throughout history Unclear determining factors Psychopathy checklist (PCL) looks for certain personality traits Criticism: Are psychopaths qualitatively different from other offenders?

38 Policy Implications of Personality Theory
Personality traits consistently predict delinquency and crime. Criticism: Personality traits are often portrayed as impossible to change.

39 You Are the Criminologist
Does Dennis Rader (BTK) show signs of being a psychopath? What characteristics of psychopathy appear to fit with Rader? What characteristics do not?

40 Intelligence and Crime
Feeblemindedness was once thought to be a cause of crime. What exactly is IQ and how does it relate to criminal behavior?

41 A Brief History of Intelligence Testing
IQ tests measure mental differences from one person to another. Old methods included: Measuring one’s skull size Testing the ability to memorize These methods were determined to be insufficient.

42 A Brief History of Intelligence Testing
IQ test devised to identify students who were performing poorly in school and needed academic assistance Not meant to be a measuring device for intelligence Has concerns of cultural bias

43 IQ and Crime There is an IQ gap of 8–10 points between criminals and noncriminals, even when statistically controlled for race and social class. IQ is not a very strong indicator of criminal behavior.

44 IQ and Crime Travis Hirschi and Michael Hindelang The Bell Curve
Crime-IQ link consistently documented Criminologists continue to study the relationship.

45 Policy Implications of the IQ-Crime Relationship
Is IQ a measure of native intelligence or something else? Is IQ a direct cause of crime or does it influence other factors that cause criminal behavior? What do criminologists believe about IQ and its direct or indirect relationship to crime?

46 Conclusion The common emphasis of all psychological theories is on the individual. Each theory must be evaluated on its ability to account for criminality. Not all theories are well supported by evidence. Many psychological theories translate well into treatment programs.

Download ppt "Chapter 5 Psychology and Crime"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google