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Chapter 6 SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT Phases, Tools, and Techniques

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 6 SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT Phases, Tools, and Techniques"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 6 SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT Phases, Tools, and Techniques


Centers for Disease Control (CDC) tracks a wealth of information Unfortunately, most of that information is stored in separate IT systems that do not communicate with each other

The CDC is using a service-oriented architecture (SoA) to integrate all those systems and information

5 INTRODUCTION Information systems are the support structure for meeting the company’s strategies and goals Why new systems are created:

6 INTRODUCTION When developing a new system, you have 3 “who” choices…
Insourcing Selfsourcing Outsourcing

Component-Based Development Selfsourcing Prototyping Outsourcing

Systems development life cycle (SDLC) Also called a waterfall methodology

9 SDLC Phases & Major Activities

10 SDLC as a Waterfall Methodology

11 Phase 1: Planning Planning phase Three primary planning activities:
Define the system to be developed

12 Phase 1: Planning Set the project scope Project scope Scope creep
Feature creep Project scope document

13 Phase 1: Planning Develop the project plan including tasks, resources, and timeframes Project plan Project manager Project milestones

14 Phase 1: Planning Sample Project Plan

15 Phase 2: Analysis Analysis phase

16 Phase 2: Analysis Two primary analysis activities:
Gather the business requirements Business requirements Joint application development (JAD)

17 Phase 2: Analysis Prioritize the requirements
Requirements definition document

18 Phase 2: Analysis Take time during analysis to get the business requirements correct. If you find errors, fix them immediately. The cost to fix an error in the early stages of the SDLC is relatively small. In later stages, the cost is huge.

19 Phase 3: Design Design phase Two primary design activities:
Design the technical architecture Technical architecture

20 Phase 3: Design Design system models Starting with design, you take on less of an active participation role and act more as a “quality control” function, ensuring that the IT people are designing a system to meet your needs

21 Phase 4: Development Development phase
Two primary development activities:

22 Phase 5: Testing Testing phase Two primary testing activities:
Write the test conditions

23 Phase 5: Testing Perform the testing of the system Unit testing
System testing Integration testing User acceptance testing (UAT)

24 Phase 6: Implementation
Implementation phase Two primary implementation activities Write detailed user documentation

25 Phase 6: Implementation
Provide training for the system users Online training Workshop training

26 Phase 6: Implementation
Choose the right implementation method Parallel implementation Plunge implementation Pilot implementation Phased implementation

27 Phase 7: Maintenance Maintenance phase
Two primary maintenance activities: Build a help desk to support the system users Provide an environment to support system changes

The SDLC focuses only on the project at hand Component-based development (CBD) CBD focuses on

29 Component-Based Development Methodologies
Rapid application development (RAD) Extreme programming (XP) Agile methodology

30 Rapid Application Development (RAD)
Rapid application development (RAD) (also called rapid prototyping) – Prototypes are models of the software components The development team continually designs, develops, and tests the component prototypes until they are finished

31 Rapid Application Development (RAD)
Use already-existing software components Build new software components

32 Extreme Programming (XP)

33 Agile Methodology Agile methodology

34 SoA – An Architecture Perspective
Service-oriented architecture (SoA) All CBD methodologies adhere to an SoA Services are the same as components, which are the same as small self-contained blocks of code More in Chapter 7

35 SELFSOURCING Selfsourcing (end-user development)

36 Selfsourcing Approach

37 Selfsourcing Approach

38 Selfsourcing Advantages

39 Selfsourcing Disadvantages

40 The Right Tool for the Job
End users must have development tools that:

41 PROTOTYPING Prototype Prototyping Proof-of-concept prototype
Selling prototype

42 The Prototyping Process
The prototyping process involves four steps:

43 The Prototyping Process

44 Advantages of Prototyping

45 Disadvantages of Prototyping

46 OUTSOURCING Outsourcing

47 OUTSOURCING The main reasons behind the rapid growth of the outsourcing industry include the following:

48 Outsourcing Options IT outsourcing for software development can take one of four forms:

49 Outsourcing Options

50 Outsourcing Process

51 Outsourcing Process When outsourcing, you’ll develop two vitally important documents – a request for proposal and a service level agreement

52 Outsourcing – RFP Request for proposal (RFP)

53 Outsourcing – SLA Service level agreement (SLA)

54 Outsourcing Options There are three different forms of outsourcing:
Onshore outsourcing Nearshore outsourcing Offshore outsourcing

55 Offshore Outsourcing Primary outsourcing countries are: India China
Eastern Europe (including Russia) Ireland Israel Philippines

56 The Advantages and Disadvantages of Outsourcing

57 The Advantages and Disadvantages of Outsourcing

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