2 The Convention- met in Philadelphia- May - September of 1787- 55 delegates from 12 states (not R.I.)
3 The Delegates- Mostly prosperous, educated, experienced men- George Washington – elected ChairmanBen Franklin – a calming influence- They helped make the Convention acceptableto Americans
4 Many prominent Americans were not there - Abroad: Thomas Jefferson, John Adams,John Jay, Thomas Paine- At home: Sam Adams & John Hancock- Refused to attend: Patrick Henry
5 James Madison- Wrote the proposal for a newgovernment: The Virginia Plan- The plan became the basis forthe Constitution- Took extensive notes, theonly complete record of theConvention- Wrote many of The FederalistPapers essays that explain theConstitution- Later wrote the Bill of Rights- “Father of the Constitution”
6 Revising or Replacing?- Meeting was for the “sole and express purposeof revising the Articles of Confederation.”- The delegates instead decided to completelychange the government
7 Basic Principles of American Government Popular Sovereignty - the will of the peopleRepublicanism- a democratic (elected) republic (representatives)
8 Federalism- share power between the national & state governmentsLimited Government- to identify the powers of the new, strongernational government
9 Basic Principles (cont’d) Separation of Powers – divide the powers of the national governmentChecks & Balances – branches of the national government to oversee & limit each otherIndividual Rights – protected from this stronger national government
10 Major Problems & Compromises Representation – should states be represented proportionally (by population) or equally in the legislature?- Virginia Plan / Large-States / Madison- proportional (based on population)- New Jersey Plan/Small-State/James Patterson- equal representationSolution: The Great Compromise (Connecticut)- Roger Sherman- a bicameral legislature (two houses)- House of Representatives - based on population- The Senate - equal (two) votes for each state.
11 Problem: Slavery- How to count the slave population for representation & taxation?- Southern/Slave states wanted to count slaves for legislative representation- Northern states wanted to count slaves for determining the taxes the southern states should pay to the federal governmentSolution: Three-Fifths Compromise- 3/5’s of the slave population would count for both representation and taxation
12 Issue:State vs. National GovernmentHow to balance the powers of both levels of government?Solution: Federalism - a Federal System - the state and national governments share power
13 Government PowersEnumerated Powers – powers of the Federal government are limited to those listed in the ConstitutionReserved Powers – powers not specifically given to the Federal government are ‘reserved’ for the statesConcurrent Powers – powers that are ‘Shared’ by bothThe national government would be superior to the states.
14 Basic Principles in the Constitution Republicanism- The People directly elected the members of the House of RepresentativesFederalism- The States chose their Senators, and elected the President through the Electoral College- Powers not specified for the national government were reserved for the States
15 Limited Government- The powers of Congress (Federal Government) are listed in Article I, Section 8- The powers denied Congress are listed in Article I, Section 9- The 10th Amendment would restate the idea of Reserved Powers for the States
16 The Elastic Clause or Necessary & Proper Clause - Article I, Section 8, Clause 18, allows Congress to make the laws needed to carry out its responsibilities.- This clause has been the basis for the expansion of the power of the Federal government, almost from the nation’s beginning
17 Separation of Powers and Checks & Balances The federal government was divided into three branches- Legislative Branch – makes the laws and hasauthority over the budget (Congress)- Executive Branch – enforces the laws andhas authority over foreign policy & themilitary (President)- Judicial Branch – interprets the laws andhears federal cases & appeals(Supreme Court)- Each branch has some authority over theothers, limiting the powers of each