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# Chapter 9b Price Setting in the Business World. How are prices set by business people? Costs provide a price floor. See what substitute products are priced.

## Presentation on theme: "Chapter 9b Price Setting in the Business World. How are prices set by business people? Costs provide a price floor. See what substitute products are priced."— Presentation transcript:

Chapter 9b Price Setting in the Business World

How are prices set by business people? Costs provide a price floor. See what substitute products are priced at Can you offer something of additional value that people will pay a price premium for? Use this information and market responses to set your prices. Remember, price increases & decreases have a direct impact on unit profits

Markup Pricing Markup - a dollar amount added to the cost of products to get a selling price Many retailers apply a standard markup to everything they sell. However, with modern data information price setting is changing to more of a market response method for many firms.

Markup Formulas Markup On Selling Price = –(Selling Price - Cost) / Selling Price Markup on Cost = –(Selling Price - Cost)/ Cost

Markup Example 1 Your cost is \$20 each and your selling price is \$25. What is your markup on selling price and your markup on cost?

Answer 1 Markup on selling price = –(\$25 - \$20) / \$25 = 20% Markup on cost = –(\$25 - \$20) / \$20 = 25%

Stockturns Stockturn rate Stockturn rate = –(sales in units) / (avg. inventory in units) Faster stockturn rates lower inventory holding costs. What is a “high” or “low” stockturn rate depends on the industry.

Average Cost Pricing Average Cost Pricing Problems: –does not consider cost changes at different output levels. –Does not consider the impact price has on quantity demanded

Break Even Analysis Break - even analysis Break - even point BEP (in units) = –(Total Fixed Cost) / (Fixed Cost Contribution per Unit)

Break-Even Analysis (Exhibit 18-8)

Break Even #1 Your fixed costs are \$100,000, your variable cost per unit = \$15 and your unit price = \$40. What is the break-even quantity? If you sell 3000 units, what is the profit? If you sell 6000 units, what is the profit?

Answer #1 Break-even Quantity = –(100,000) / (40-15) = 4,000 units At 3000 units? –3,000 (\$40 - 15) - \$100,000 = \$25,000 loss At 6000 units? –6000 ( 40 - 15) - \$100,000 = \$50,000 profit

BE & ROI A target profit amount can be added to break even analysis to give the quantity needed to hit a certain profit goal. The target profit amount is added to the fixed costs in the equation.

BE & ROI Problem Take the last example. Our goal is now a 10% ROI. What is the quantity needed to hit this ROI target?

BE ROI Answer Our new “fixed costs” are \$100,000 & the profit goal. –\$100,000 + (100,000 x 0.1) = \$110,000 Break even for this ROI level is \$110,000 / (\$40 - 15) = 4,400 units

Break Even Calculating BEP at several possible prices and forecasting the probable demand at those price points can be helpful. BE Analysis is also a good illustration of why managers constantly look for ways to cut costs. Cost cuts means you can achieve profitability at much lower sales levels.

Problems with BE Analysis Break-even analysis has two big assumptions 1] There is a horizontal demand curve 2] Cost curves do not change over the production horizon

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