Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

William Stallings Data and Computer Communications 7th Edition

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "William Stallings Data and Computer Communications 7th Edition"— Presentation transcript:

1 William Stallings Data and Computer Communications 7th Edition
Chapter 17 Wireless LANs

2 Overview A wireless LAN uses wireless transmission medium
Used to have high prices, low data rates, occupational safety concerns, and licensing requirements Problems have been addressed Popularity of wireless LANs has grown rapidly

3 Applications - LAN Extension
Saves installation of LAN cabling Eases relocation and other modifications to network structure However, increasing reliance on twisted pair cabling for LANs Most older buildings already wired with Cat 3 cable Newer buildings are prewired with Cat 5 Wireless LAN to replace wired LANs has not happened In some environments, role for the wireless LAN Buildings with large open areas Manufacturing plants, stock exchange trading floors, warehouses Historical buildings Small offices where wired LANs not economical May also have wired LAN Servers and stationary workstations

4 Single Cell Wireless LAN Configuration

5 Multi-Cell Wireless LAN Configuration

6 Infrastructure Wireless LAN

7 Applications – Ad Hoc Networking
Peer-to-peer network Set up temporarily to meet some immediate need E.g. group of employees, each with laptop or palmtop, in business or classroom meeting Network for duration of meeting

8 Ad Hoc LAN

9 Wireless LAN Requirements
Same as any LAN High capacity, short distances, full connectivity, broadcast capability Throughput: efficient use wireless medium Number of nodes:Hundreds of nodes across multiple cells Connection to backbone LAN: Use control modules to connect to both types of LANs Service area: 100 to 300 m Low power consumption:Need long battery life on mobile stations Mustn't require nodes to monitor access points or frequent handshakes Transmission robustness and security:Interference prone and easily eavesdropped Collocated network operation:Two or more wireless LANs in same area License-free operation Handoff/roaming: Move from one cell to another Dynamic configuration: Addition, deletion, and relocation of end systems without disruption to users

10 Technology Infrared (IR) LANs: Individual cell of IR LAN limited to single room IR light does not penetrate opaque walls Spread spectrum LANs: Mostly operate in ISM (industrial, scientific, and medical) bands No Federal Communications Commission (FCC) licensing is required in USA Narrowband microwave: Microwave frequencies but not use spread spectrum Some require FCC licensing 17.2 will be skipped except for spread spectrum

11 Spread Spectrum LANs Hub Configuration
Usually use multiple-cell arrangement Adjacent cells use different center frequencies Hub is typically mounted on ceiling Connected to wired LAN Connect to stations attached to wired LAN and in other cells May also control access IEEE point coordination function May also act as multiport repeater Stations transmit to hub and receive from hub Stations may broadcast using an omnidirectional antenna Logical bus configuration Hub may do automatic handoff Weakening signal, hand off

12 Spread Spectrum LANs Peer-to-Peer Configuration
No hub MAC algorithm such as CSMA used to control access Ad hoc LANs

13 Spread Spectrum LANs Transmission Issues
Licensing regulations differ from one country to another USA FCC authorized two unlicensed applications within the ISM band: Spread spectrum - up to 1 watt Very low power systems- up to 0.5 watts MHz (915-MHz band) GHz (2.4-GHz band) GHz (5.8-GHz band) 2.4 GHz also in Europe and Japan Higher frequency means higher potential bandwidth Interference Devices at around 900 MHz, including cordless telephones, wireless microphones, and amateur radio Fewer devices at 2.4 GHz; microwave oven Little competition at 5.8 GHz Higher frequency band, more expensive equipment

14 Channel Allocation

15 IEEE BSS MAC protocol and physical medium specification for wireless LANs Smallest building block is basic service set (BSS) Number of stations Same MAC protocol Competing for access to same shared wireless medium May be isolated or connect to backbone distribution system (DS) through access point (AP) AP functions as bridge MAC protocol may be distributed or controlled by central coordination function in AP BSS generally corresponds to cell DS can be switch, wired network, or wireless network

16 BSS Configuration Simplest: each station belongs to single BSS
Within range only of other stations within BSS Can have two BSSs overlap Station could participate in more than one BSS Association between station and BSS dynamic Stations may turn off, come within range, and go out of range

17 Extended Service Set (ESS)
Two or more BSS interconnected by DS Typically, DS is wired backbone but can be any network Appears as single logical LAN to LLC

18 Access Point (AP) Logic within station that provides access to DS
Provides DS services in addition to acting as station To integrate IEEE architecture with wired LAN, portal used Portal logic implemented in device that is part of wired LAN and attached to DS E.g. Bridge or router

19 IEEE Architecture

20 Distribution of Messages Within a DS
Distribution is primary service used by stations to exchange MAC frames when frame must traverse DS From station in one BSS to station in another BSS Transport of message through DS is beyond scope of If stations within same BSS, distribution service logically goes through single AP of that BSS Integration service enables transfer of data between station on LAN and one on an integrated 802.x LAN Integrated refers to wired LAN physically connected to DS Stations may be logically connected to LAN via integration service Integration service takes care of address translation and media conversion

21 Association Related Services
Purpose of MAC layer transfer MSDUs between MAC entities Fulfilled by distribution service (DS) DS requires information about stations within ESS Provided by association-related services Station must be associated before communicating Three transition types of based on mobility No transition: Stationary or moves within range of single BSS BSS transition: From one BSS to another within same ESS Requires addressing capability be able to recognize new location ESS transition: From BSS in one ESS to BSS in another ESS Only supported in sense that the station can move Maintenance of upper-layer connections not guaranteed Disruption of service likely

22 Station Location DS needs to know where destination station is
Identity of AP to which message should be delivered Station must maintain association with AP within current BSS Three services relate to this requirement:  Association: Establishes initial association between station and AP To make identity and address known Station must establish association with AP within particular BSS AP then communicates information to other APs within ESS Reassociation: Transfer established association to another AP Allows station to move from one BSS to another Disassociation: From either station or AP that association is terminated Given before station leaves ESS or shuts MAC management facility protects itself against stations that disappear without notification


24 Access and Privacy Services - Authentication
On wireless LAN, any station within radio range other devices can transmit Any station within radio range can receive Authentication: Used to establish identity of stations to each other Wired LANs assume access to physical connection conveys authority to connect to LAN Not valid assumption for wireless LANs Connectivity achieved by having properly tuned antenna Authentication service used to establish station identity supports several authentication schemes Allows expansion of these schemes Does not mandate any particular scheme Range from relatively insecure handshaking to public-key encryption schemes requires mutually acceptable, successful authentication before association

25 Access and Privacy Services - Deauthentication and Privacy
Deauthentication: Invoked whenever an existing authentication is to be terminated Privacy: Used to prevent messages being read by others provides for optional use of encryption

26 Medium Access Control CSMA/CA MAC layer covers three functional areas
Reliable data delivery Access control Security Beyond our scope

27 Reliable Data Delivery
physical and MAC layers subject to unreliability Noise, interference, and other propagation effects result in loss of frames Even with error-correction codes, frames may not successfully be received Can be dealt with at a higher layer, such as TCP However, retransmission timers at higher layers typically order of seconds More efficient to deal with errors at the MAC level includes frame exchange protocol Station receiving frame returns acknowledgment (ACK) frame Exchange treated as atomic unit Not interrupted by any other station If no ACK within short period of time, retransmit

28 Four Frame Exchange Basic data transfer involves exchange of two frames To further enhance reliability, four-frame exchange may be used Source issues a Request to Send (RTS) frame to destination Destination responds with Clear to Send (CTS) After receiving CTS, source transmits data Destination responds with ACK RTS alerts all stations within range of source that exchange is under way CTS alerts all stations within range of destination Stations refrain from transmission to avoid collision RTS/CTS exchange is required function of MAC but may be disabled

29 Media Access Control Distributed wireless foundation MAC (DWFMAC)
Distributed access control mechanism Optional centralized control on top Lower sublayer is distributed coordination function (DCF) Contention algorithm to provide access to all traffic Asynchronous traffic Point coordination function (PCF) Centralized MAC algorithm Contention free Built on top of DCF

30 IEEE 802.11 Protocol Architecture

31 Distributed Coordination Function
DCF sublayer uses CSMA If station has frame to transmit, it listens to medium If medium idle, station may transmit Otherwise must wait until current transmission complete No collision detection Not practical on wireless network Dynamic range of signals very large Transmitting station cannot distinguish incoming weak signals from noise and effects of own transmission DCF includes delays Amounts to priority scheme Interframe space

32 Interframe Space Single delay known as interframe space (IFS)
Using IFS, rules for CSMA: Station with frame senses medium If idle, wait to see if remains idle for one IFS. If so, may transmit immediately If busy (either initially or becomes busy during IFS) station defers transmission Continue to monitor until current transmission is over Once current transmission over, delay another IFS If remains idle, back off random time and again sense If medium still idle, station may transmit During backoff time, if becomes busy, backoff timer is halted and resumes when medium becomes idle To ensure stability, binary exponential backoff used

33 IEEE 802.11 Medium Access Control Logic

34 Priority Use three values for IFS SIFS (short IFS):
Shortest IFS For all immediate response actions (see later) PIFS (point coordination function IFS): Midlength IFS Used by the centralized controller in PCF scheme when issuing polls DIFS (distributed coordination function IFS): Longest IFS Used as minimum delay for asynchronous frames contending for access

35 SIFS Use - ACK Station using SIFS to determine transmission opportunity has highest priority In preference to station waiting PIFS or DIFS time SIFS used in following circumstances: Acknowledgment (ACK): Station responds with ACK after waiting SIFS gap No collision detection so likelihood of collisions greater than CSMA/CD MAC-level ACK gives efficient collision recovery SIFS provide efficient delivery of multiple frame LLC PDU Station with multiframe LLC PDU to transmit sends out MAC frames one at a time Each frame acknowledged after SIFS by recipient When source receives ACK, immediately (after SIFS) sends next frame in sequence Once station has contended for channel, it maintains control of all fragments sent

36 SIFS Use – CTS Clear to Send (CTS): Station can ensure data frame will get through by issuing RTS Destination station should immediately respond with CTS if ready to receive All other stations hear RTS and defer Poll response: See Point coordination Function (PCF)

37 PIFS and DIFS PIFS used by centralized controller
Issuing polls Takes precedence over normal contention traffic Frames using SIFS have precedence over PCF poll DIFS used for all ordinary asynchronous traffic

38 IEEE 802.11 MAC Timing Basic Access Method

39 802.11 - illustration DIFS DIFS DIFS DIFS boe bor boe bor boe busy
station1 boe busy station2 busy station3 boe busy boe bor station4 boe bor boe busy boe bor station5 t busy medium not idle (frame, ack etc.) boe elapsed backoff time packet arrival at MAC bor residual backoff time

40 Point Coordination Function (PCF)
Alternative access method implemented on top of DCF Polling by centralized polling master (point coordinator) Uses PIFS when issuing polls PIFS smaller than DIFS Can seize medium and lock out all asynchronous traffic while it issues polls and receives responses E.g. wireless network configured so number of stations with time-sensitive traffic controlled by point coordinator Remaining traffic contends for access using CSMA Point coordinator polls in round-robin to stations configured for polling When poll issued, polled station may respond using SIFS If point coordinator receives response, it issues another poll using PIFS If no response during expected turnaround time, coordinator issues poll

41 Superframe Point coordinator would lock out asynchronous traffic by issuing polls Superframe interval defined During first part of superframe interval, point coordinator polls round-robin to all stations configured for polling Point coordinator then idles for remainder of superframe Allowing contention period for asynchronous access At beginning of superframe, point coordinator may seize control and issue polls for given period Time varies because of variable frame size issued by responding stations Rest of superframe available for contention-based access At end of superframe interval, point coordinator contends for access using PIFS If idle, point coordinator gains immediate access Full superframe period follows If busy, point coordinator must wait for idle to gain access Results in foreshortened superframe period for next cycle

42 IEEE 802.11 MAC Timing PCF Superframe Construction

43 IEEE MAC Frame Format

44 MAC Frame Fields (1) Frame Control: Duration/Connection ID: Addresses:
Type of frame Control, management, or data Provides control information Includes whether frame is to or from DS, fragmentation information, and privacy information Duration/Connection ID: If used as duration field, indicates time (in s) channel will be allocated for successful transmission of MAC frame In some control frames, contains association or connection identifier Addresses: Number and meaning of address fields depend on context Types include source, destination, transmitting station, and receiving station

45 MAC address format DS: Distribution System AP: Access Point
DA: Destination Address SA: Source Address BSSID: Basic Service Set Identifier RA: Receiver Address TA: Transmitter Address

46 MAC Frame Fields (2) Sequence Control: Frame Body:
4-bit fragment number subfield For fragmentation and reassembly 12-bit sequence number Number frames between given transmitter and receiver Frame Body: MSDU (or a fragment of) LLC PDU or MAC control information Frame Check Sequence: 32-bit cyclic redundancy check

47 Control Frames Assist in reliable data delivery
Power Save-Poll (PS-Poll) Sent by any station to station that includes AP Request AP transmit frame buffered for this station while station in power-saving mode Request to Send (RTS) First frame in four-way frame exchange Clear to Send (CTS) Second frame in four-way exchange Acknowledgment (ACK)

48 Management Frames Used to manage communications between stations and APs E.g. management of associations Requests, response, reassociation, disassociation, and authentication Beacon frame Timestamp, beacon interval, SSID, TIM…

49 802.11 Physical Layer Issued in four stages First part in 1997
IEEE Includes MAC layer and three physical layer specifications Two in 2.4-GHz band and one infrared All operating at 1 and 2 Mbps Two additional parts in 1999 IEEE a 5-GHz band up to 54 Mbps IEEE b 2.4-GHz band at 5.5 and 11 Mbps Most recent in 2002 IEEE 802.g extends IEEE b to higher data rates

50 Original 802.11 Physical Layer - DSSS
Three physical media  Direct-sequence spread spectrum 2.4 GHz ISM band at 1 Mbps and 2 Mbps Up to seven channels, each 1 Mbps or 2 Mbps, can be used Depends on bandwidth allocated by various national regulations 13 in most European countries One in Japan Each channel bandwidth 5 MHz Encoding scheme DBPSK for 1-Mbps and DQPSK for 2-Mbps

51 Original 802.11 Physical Layer - FHSS
Frequency-hopping spread spectrum 2.4 GHz ISM band at 1 Mbps and 2 Mbps Uses multiple channels Signal hopping from one channel to another based on a pseudonoise sequence 1-MHz channels are used 23 channels in Japan 70 in USA Hopping scheme adjustable E.g. Minimum hop rate forUSA is 2.5 hops per second Minimum hop distance 6 MHz in North America and most of Europe and 5 MHz in Japan Two-level Gaussian FSK modulation for 1-Mbps Bits encoded as deviations from current carrier frequency For 2 Mbps, four-level GFSK used Four different deviations from center frequency define four 2-bit combinations

52 802.11a 5-GHz band Uses orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) Not spread spectrum Also called multicarrier modulation Multiple carrier signals at different frequencies Some bits on each channel Similar to FDM but all subchannels dedicated to single source Data rates 6, 9, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, and 54 Mbps Up to 52 subcarriers modulated using BPSK, QPSK, 16-QAM, or 64-QAM Depending on rate Subcarrier frequency spacing MHz Convolutional code at rate of 1/2, 2/3, or 3/4 provides forward error correction

53 802.11b Extension of 802.11 DS-SS scheme 5.5 and 11 Mbps
Chipping rate 11 MHz Same as original DS-SS scheme Same occupied bandwidth Complementary code keying (CCK) modulation to achieve higher data rate in same bandwidth at same chipping rate CCK modulation complex Overview on next slide Input data treated in blocks of 8 bits at MHz 8 bits/symbol  MHz = 11 Mbps Six of these bits mapped into one of 64 code sequences Output of mapping, plus two additional bits, forms input to QPSK modulator

54 802.11g Higher-speed extension to 802.11b
Combines physical layer encoding techniques used in a and b to provide service at a variety of data rates

Download ppt "William Stallings Data and Computer Communications 7th Edition"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google