3 compound which usually does not contain carbon AND hydrogen Inorganic chemistry:compound which usually does not contain carbon AND hydrogenEx. O3, NaCl, H2O, CO2
4 Inorganic Chemistry: Compounds that do not need to contain: Carbon: C ANDHydrogen: H
5 Biochemical Compounds A.K.A Organic chemistry:compounds usually found in Living or once living organismscontains both Carbon and Hydrogenother elements found in living things are: C, H, O, N, PhosphorousCarbon = “element of LIFE”
21 2 connected monosaccharide (ex: maltose) Elements PresentUsed by organisms for ...Building Blocks(Monomers)Related Terms & Infocarbon hydrogen oxygenC:H:O = 1:2:1 always!Quick energymonosaccharide (simple sugars)ex: glucoseDisaccharide:2 connected monosaccharide (ex: maltose)Polysaccharide 3 or more connected monosaccharide (ex: starch, glycogen, chitin, cellulose)
22 Organic Compounds cont. Lipids: Fats, cholesterol, waxes, oilsLipids + H2O3 fatty acids +glycerolH to O ratio is much greater than 2:1Do not EMULSIFY - break apart in H2OUsed as Stored energy in organisms
24 Lipids 2 classifications of fats: Saturated fats Unsaturated fats (which includes polyunsaturated fats)
25 Lipids: Saturated fats: solid at room temperature linked to cardiovascular diseasehave many H-C bonds
26 Lipids: Unsaturated fats: not solids at room temp not associated with cardiovascular diseasehave 1 or more double C-C bondspolyunsaturated fats have more than 1 double or triple C-C bond
27 3 Fatty Acids 1 glycerol Elements Present Used by Organisms for ... Related Terms & InfoCarbon Hydrogen OxygenONLY !There is no specific H:O ratio.Stored EnergyStructure (important part of cell membranes)saturated fat = C-C bonds are all single bondsunsaturated fat = contain at least one double or triple C-C bondBuilding Blocks of Lipids3 Fatty Acids1 glycerol
28 Topic: “chemistry of life”: STOP!!! CK POINTTopic: “chemistry of life”:What elements are found in carbohydrates and lipids?Explain 2 differences between carbohydrates and lipids.Describe the function for each?How are monomers bonded together? Broken apart?
29 Organic Compounds: NUCLEIC ACIDS: DNA & RNA We will save the nitty, gritty details of DNA & RNA for later in the year (Genetics). But for now, you should know there functions & basic structure, and how DNA compares to RNA.
30 DNA & RNADNA & RNA are polymers (many units) --- long chains of smaller repeating units. The repeating unit (monomers) in nucleic acids is called a nucleotide.
36 DNA RNA Nucleic Acids: FULL NAME Deoxyribonucleic acid BASIC STRUCTURE2 long twisting strands of nucleotides in the form of a "double helix"1 single strand of nucleotidesNUCLEOTIDE SUGARDeoxyriboseRiboseNITROGENOUS BASESguanine (G) cytosine (C) adenine (A) thymine (T)guanine (G) cytosine (C) adenine (A) uracil (U)LOCATION IN A CELLnucleus (the chromosomes)nucleus, in the cytoplasm, & at the ribosomesFUNCTIONthe hereditary material of a cell, directs & controls cell activitiesinvolved in protein synthesis
37 Organic Compounds: ProteiNs' Contain the elements: Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen and Nitrogentake the shape of coils, helixes and globulesex. Collagen, hormones, muscle tissue, enzymes, Hemoglobin
39 ProteiNs:Made up of basic building blocks MONOMERS called:AMINO ACIDS!!!!
40 Amino Acids:are the structural units (monomers) of proteinbond together to form proteinsThe bond between amino acids are calledPeptide bonds
41 Amino Acids:The order/sequence and size of amino acid determines the protein made2 amino acids bonded together = dipeptideamino acids form long chains called a polypeptide chains
42 carbon hydrogen oxygen & NITROGEN Elements PresentUsed by organisms for ...Related Terms & Infocarbon hydrogen oxygen & NITROGEN(sometimes Sulfur)musclesenzymesantibodieshormonesPigmentsHemoglobinpeptide bond = the bond that holds amino acids together in protein moleculesdipeptide =2 connectedamino acidspolypeptide =3 or more connectedamino acids monomers of Proteins:AMINO ACIDS!!!
43 Topic: “NA and ProteiNs”: STOP!!! CK POINTTopic: “NA and ProteiNs”:What are 2 types of Nucleic Acids?What is the “monomer” of a nucleic acid?Describe the primary functions of nucleic acids.Identify elements found in ProteiNs.What is the monomer for ProteiNs?
44 Group Activity:Group leaders to get a markerAs a group, and when instructed, you will go to a poster in a designated area in the roomWhen the timer begins WRITE 1 ACCURATE FACTWait until instructed, move to the next poster.As you move to each poster, read each statement then add an additional fact
45 Enzymes:Are forms of protein!!!!!!!!!!!!!Usually end in “ASE”Are not changed during a chemical rxn (a substance affects a reaction w/o being changed is called a CATALYST)
46 Enzymes: Are organic catalysts : Are used over and over Control the rate of rxn within cellsCatalysts allow rxns to occur at a faster rateAre used over and overFor each chem. rxn, there is a specific enzyme to initiate the rxn
47 HOW ENZYMES WORK: Substrate- Enzyme Active- the substance the enzyme acts uponEnzyme Active-the region on the enzymeSubstrate and Enzyme active site are specific to each other.The substrate fits the enzyme active site like a puzzle called: enzyme-substrate complex
48 HOW ENZYMES WORK: When the enzyme and substrate come together: may cause 2 molecules to join togethermay cause bonds to break
55 pH level – specific to the enzyme stomach acidic, intestines slightly basic
56 Presence of coenzymes (vitamins) allows an enzyme to perform
57 Carbon Compounds4 groups of carbon compounds found in living things are carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, and protein.Living things use carbohydrates as their main source of energy. Plants and some animals also use carbohydrates for structural purposes.Lipids can be used to store energy. Some lipids are important parts of cell membranes and waterproofing.Nucleic acids store and transmit hereditary, or genetic, information.Proteins:control the rate of reactions and regulate cell processes.build tissues such as bone and muscle. Others transport materials or help to fight disease.
58 Chemical Reactions and Enzymes Chemical rxns always involve the breaking of bonds in reactants and the formation of new bonds in products.Cells use enzymes to speed up chemical reactions that take place in cells.