Ratification - In September of 1787 the Confederation Congress accepted the Constitution and sent it to the states for ratification. - Each state was.
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Ratification - In September of 1787 the Confederation Congress accepted the Constitution and sent it to the states for ratification. - Each state was to elect a convention that would either ratify or reject the Constitution.
Individual Rights were a major disagreement - Supporters of the Constitution (Federalists) argued that individual rights were understood to exist and/or were protected by the states - Opponents (Anti-Federalists) argued that the powerful national government would be a threat to individual liberties and that the rights of the people must be spelled out - Solution: Federalists agreed to add a Bill of Rights as amendments to the Constitution, if Anti-Federalists would first ratify the Constitution
Those who favored ratification of the Constitution were known as Federalists. They argued for a stronger national government to protect American independence and 1) To more effectively deal with foreign nations 2) To effectively regulate trade and the economy 3) To unify the competing interests of the states 4) To deal with internal problems Washington, Franklin, Hamilton, and John Adams were all Federalists.
Those who opposed the Constitution were known as Anti-Federalists. They argued that the Constitution: 1) made the national government too powerful 2) weakened the powers of the states too much 3) had been written secretly and favored certain groups (the North and business) 4) did not protect the rights of individuals. Patrick Henry, Richard Henry Lee, and Samuel Adams were Anti-Federalists. Several essays and pamphlets were published opposing the Constitution, including Lee’s Letters from a Federal Farmer.
The Federalist Papers (aka The Federalist ) - A series of essays published anonymously in New York newspapers by James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay - The essays explained the Constitution and called for its ratification. - They are still the best explanation of how our government was intended to work.
Finally Ratified - By June of 1788 the necessary nine of thirteen states needed had ratified the Constitution, but the important states of New York and Virginia, still had not. - A Bill of Rights was promised to Anti-Federalists and Virginia and New York narrowly voted for ratification - Fiercely independent and strongly democratic North Carolina and Rhode Island were the last states to ratify the Constitution.
New Government The newly-elected Congress and President George Washington took office in March & April of 1789. The Bill of Rights - The new Congress approved the amendments to the Constitution, written by James Madison, that were intended to protect individual rights and further limit the power of the federal government. - The states ratified ten of them and they became law in 1791.