2 Turkey – EU RelationsApplication of Turkey for an association agreement with the EEC in July 1959Ankara Agreement signed in Sept 1963Turkey’s association with the EEC was “determined to establish ever closer bonds between the Turkish people and the peoples brought together in the European Economic Community”Stage by stage integration process concluding eventually with full membership of the Customs Union following the successful completion of the preparatory and the transitional stages, and a movement towards free mobility of labor between Turkey and the EEC at some future date.
3 Why Turkey applied for the EEC Identity issue: closer relations with the emerging European Community seemed consistent with the fundamental goals of building and maintaining a secular, democratic and Western-oriented state;Turkey – Greece relations: to prevent Greece from taking unfair advantage in its subsequent bilateral relations with Turkey;Long-term benefits: generated through closer interaction with a powerful economic union;
4 Comparison of Turkey and Greece in 1960s and early 1970s Application of Greece to the EEC: June ’59 (Turkey in July ’59)Athens Associaton Agreement: Nov ’62 (Ankara Agreement in Sept ’63)The positions were almost similar; both NATO countries and critical for western security interests in the Cold War contextThe nature of the association agreements signed with the two countries were also broadly similar (although the agreement with Turkey was less generous)While Greece was isolated from international diplomacy and the Athens Agreement was suspended because of the military regime between 1967 and 74, Turkey was still on its way to the EEC.
5 Additional Agreement Protocol between Turkey and the EEC signed in November 1970 in Brussels Additional Protocol opened way to further financial support, determined the conditions of the full membership and arranged the formation of a Customs Union between Turkey and the EU 22 years after the Protocol (approved in 1973)
6 Turning point: 1974USA and the EEC disapproved the military intervention.Downfall of the junta regime in Greece and the formation of a democratic government.Greece applied for membership in 1975 and became a member in 1981
7 Why did Turkey fail to apply for full membership of the EC at the same time as Greece? Turkish policy makers underestimated the difficulties that Greece’s inclusion in the EC would pose for the subsequent course of Turkey-EC relations;Turkish policy makers failed to anticipate the speed of the full membership after the Greek application;Turkish political elites were reluctant to accelerate the pace of integration and to expose Turkish industry to unnecessary and premature competition
8 Late 1970s and 1980In late 70s, with the possibility of an early accession of Greece and the start of negotiations with Portugal (1978) and Spain (1979), the idea of applying for full-membership gained increasing support in Turkey.However, growing domestic political and economic instability and the opposition of the Islamist element in the coalition government to the EC delayed the applicationFinally, the military coup d’etat in 12 September 1980 put an end to any chance of possible full-membership in the foreseeable future
9 After the military regime Following the military regime between 1980 and 1983, Turkey gradually returned to democracyTransformed in the direction of a far more open and outward-oriented economy in the course of the 1980s and the 1990srelations with the EC improvedOfficial relations between Turkey and the EU revitalized in September 1986
10 Application for full membership Turkey applied for full membership in April 1987in December 1989, the application was rejectedTurkey had failed to satisfy both basic economic and political criteria for full-membershipthe European Community was in the process of becoming the even (politically and economically) tighter European Unionin any event, another round of enlargement would not take place at least until 1993
11 EU-Turkey Customs Union Came into force on 31 December 1995Removal of customs restrictions in goods except for most of the agricultural products. (Does not include services or public procurement.)The Customs Union was regarded as an important step towards full membership of Turkey to the EU
14 1997: Rejection and Disappointment In EU’s Luxembourg Summit of December 1997 Turkey was excluded from candidate statusRecognition of the candidacy of the post-Communist CEECs, which had broadly similar economic structures to Turkey and far more limited experience of democratic governmentThis decision was seen as a proof that the EU considered Turkey as an “outsider”.
15 1999 and AfterIn 1999 Helsinki Summit, the EU agreed that “Turkey was a candidate State destined to join the Union on the basis of the same criteria as applied to the other candidate States”Economically, Turkey’s candidacy contributed towards the creation of a favorable environment for the implementation of a major program of stabilization and public sector restructuring.In 17 December 2004, the European Council agreed on opening full-membership negotiations with TurkeyThe accession talks officially opened on 3 October 2005
16 Chapter NegotiationsTo accede to the EU, Turkey must successfully complete negotiations with the European Commission on each of the 35 chapters of the acquis communautaireOctober 2005: Opening of 6 chapters of the acquis: Right of Establishment & Freedom To Provide Services, Company Law, Financial Services, Information Society & Media, Statistics, and Financial Control.June 2006: Chapter on Science & Research opened and closed.December 2006 – Continued dispute over Cyprus prompts the EU to freeze talks on 8 chapters and state that no chapters would be closed until a resolution is found.2007: Chapters on Enterprise & Industrial Policy, Statistics & Financial Control, Health & Consumer Protection and Trans-European Networks opened.2008: Chapters on Company Law, Intellectual Property Law, Economic & Monetary Policy and Information Society & Media are opened.
17 Chapter Negotiations2009: Chapters on Taxation and Environment are opened.June 2010 – Chapter on Food Safety, Veterinary & Phytosanitary Policy is opened.May 2012 – Launch of the "Positive Agenda" with Turkey.July December Turkey froze relations with the European Union for the duration of Republic of Cyprus' rotating presidency.February France's foreign minister Laurent Fabius announces that France will officially remove its veto over Chapter 22 Regional Policy and Coordination of Structural Instruments and assist in the chapter's opening. The veto on Chapter 17 Economic and Monetary Policy may also be removed in the future.June Chapter on Regional Policy and Coordination of Structural Instruments is opened
18 Uncertain Future No predetermined date for Turkey’s accession Opposition from Germany and France: Privileged partnership offerSupport from UK, Italy, Spain and PortugalPositive and critical issues
19 Positive IssuesStrategic Location: Stronger EU in the international areaAging Europe / Young and dynamic population of TurkeyAlliance of CivilizationsEnergy security
20 Critical Issues Large population Religion and identity Cyprus problem Kurdish problemArmenian problem