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Peer to Peer (P2P) Networks and File sharing. By: Ryan Farrell.

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1 Peer to Peer (P2P) Networks and File sharing. By: Ryan Farrell

2 What is a Peer-To-Peer (P2P) Network? A peer-to-peer network is connection between participants in a network It is a much faster way of distributing data, rather than searching for a server that contains the file.

3 Client- Server Model A client-server P2P contains a central server that all clients download from The server holds all of the data that each computer, or node, can access

4 P2P Networks A pure P2P network contains computers that act as both clients and servers ▫A client is the computer receiving the file ▫A server is the computer distributing the file Along with the absence of a central server, there is also an absence of a central router

5 The Main Use of P2P Networks To share data from one computer to another, including: ▫Documents ▫Programs ▫Music ▫Movies ▫Games

6 P2P Networks Peer-to-peer networks can also be classified in terms of what they can be used for. ▫file sharing ▫Telephony ▫media streaming (audio, video) ▫discussion forums

7 Example of P2P Applications Lime Wire ▫Worlds fastest P2P file- sharing applications for all types of computer files.

8 File Sharing File sharing is the providing and receiving of digital files, where the files are stored on and served by personal computers of the users Most people who use file sharing applications on the Internet both provide, or upload, files, and receive, or download, them Peer-to-peer file sharing is different from file trading, and those who download files from a peer-to-peer network do not require uploading ▫Although some networks provide incentives for uploading

9 USENET The first global file sharing network was USENET USENET required a user to request that other users post the files that they want, and other users save them if they want those files USENET lost its popularity when the first generation of peer-to-peer file sharing networks evolved

10 First Generation P2P File Sharing The first generation of peer-to-peer file sharing networks was the server-client system These contained a centralized server system, and traffic is controlled by users who need the files within the system

11 First Generation P2P File Sharing Directories are stored within the server, where the users can find the data they are looking for Directories are updated when a user logs into the account In the centralized peer-to-peer model, a user would search the centralized server to ask for the specific file they were searching for The server then sends back a list of peers that have the data and aids in the connection and download of the file

12 Examples of First Generation P2P File Sharing Applications Some examples of some of the first programs that followed the server-client system include Napster and eDonkee 2000 Today, one of the leading programs following this system is LimeWire.

13 Second Generation P2P File Sharing After the legal troubles and lawsuits of Napster, Justin Frankel created a central index server called Gnutella This started the second generation of peer-to-peer file sharing, which was decentralization

14 Second Generation P2P File Sharing In the Gnutella model, all nodes on the network were equal This model quickly died, because of the bottlenecking of files as the network grew This problem was quickly solved with the creation of FastTrack, which was created so that some nodes would be more equal than others By selecting higher-capacity nodes to be indexing nodes, with lower capacity nodes branching off from them, FastTrack allowed for a network that could scale to a much larger size

15 Examples of Second Generation P2P file sharing applications Some examples of second generation peer-to-peer file sharing applications include Gnutella and Kazaa

16 Third Generation P2P File Sharing The third generation of peer-to-peer file sharing networks are indirect and encrypted These networks contain anonymity features built in to help mask the user A degree of anonymity is incorporated by hiding their identities in the traffic of other users By having users names kept anonymous, and encrypting the data, there is a decrease in the opportunity to track users and making them vulnerable to viruses and traffic sniffing

17 Examples of Third Generation P2P File Sharing Networks Some examples of anonymous networks are ANts P2P, RShare, Freenet, I2P, GNUnet and Entropy

18 Fourth Generation P2P File Sharing Network The fourth generation of peer-to-peer file sharing networks is streams over P2P Unlike traditional file sharing, there are services that send streams, instead of files, over a peer to peer network These programs use swarming technology known from BitTorrent

19 What is a Torrent? Torrents are a way of downloading and sharing files on a Peer-To-Peer network

20 What is a Torrent? Torrents contain metadata about the files to be shared and the tracker. ▫A tracker is the computer that coordinates the file distributed ▫The tracker guides the peer to the location of the file using a BitTorrent

21 What is a Bit Torrent? A BitTorrent is any program that implements the BitTorrent protocol. Each client is capable of preparing, requesting, and transmitting any type of computer file over a network, using the protocol. A peer is any computer running an instance of a client

22 In Other Words A Client is the computer that makes the original torrent, and contains the original file. The original torrent is also known as the seed. A Peer is the computer accessing the file, this is also known as a leacher.

23 Example of a BitTorrent Applications Bitlord ▫Bitlord is not only a BitTorrent, but it also has a search engine for torrents along with it

24 How They Work BitTorrent makes numerous P2P requests over different TCP sockets, while web-browsers typically make a single HTTP GET request over a single TCP socket BitTorrent downloads in a random or “rarest first” approach that ensures high availability, while HTTP downloads from a single server.

25 How They Work In this animation, the different colors represent individual pieces of the file. After the initial pieces of the file transfer from the seed, the pieces are individually transferred from client to client. The original seeder only needs to send out one copy of the file for all the clients to receive a copy.

26 Creating a Torrent Creating a torrent is very simple. The only thing you have to do is select the files you want to share and use your BitTorrent to create a torrent. To share the files, you can upload your torrent to many different torrent hosting websites.

27 Different Torrent Websites

28 Legal Issues Some claim that because BitTorrent trackers only store and track the metafiles and usually do not share any potentially copyrighted data, that they are legal. Despite this claim, there has been tremendous legal pressure on BitTorrents

29 Legal Issues BitTorrent trackers, as well as other P2P file sharing networks, have been subjected to raids and shutdowns due to claims of copyright infringement. These are usually on behalf of the MPAA and RIAA

30 Websites Shut Down

31 Legal Issues It is illegal to share copyrighted material, and if you are going to do so, do so at your own risk

32 Torrents and How They Are Used The End

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