4 Prenatal development 4th and 5th prenatal month Brain Modules Male’s greater testosterone and female’s ovarian hormones impact brain wiringBrain ModulesGender Development and Social Influence
5 Research linked to male/female differences in brain areas with abundant sex hormone receptors during developmentEx: adulthood: frontal lobes involved in verbal fluency are thicker in ___________ and part of parietal cortex involved in space perception is thicker in ______________
6 Gender roles in development Biopsychosocial approachgender is a social constructCulture shapes our rolesRole is a cluster of prescribed actions
7 So what is a gender role?Our expectations about the way men and women behave
9 How did we get here? Hunter/gatherers Little division of labor by sex Boys and girls receive same or different upbringing?
10 Agricultural Societies Women stayed close to homeMen often roam more freely
11 Conclusions?Over time, societies typically socialize children into more distinct gender roles
12 Social learning theory Assumes that children are gender linked by OBSERVING and IMITATING significant othersRewarded and punished – What does the father say to his son who was in a fight? What does the father say to his daughter who was in a fight?
13 Society assigns each of us to a category of male and female Gender identity: sense of being male or femaleGender typed: acquiring a traditional male or female roleGender schema: What it MEANS to be male or femaleHumans adjust their behavior accordinglyPrincess BoySexual Identity Goes Awry