3 DC Motor Operation Current flows through the armature coils. The armature magnetic field pulls the armature toward the permanent magnet pole and repels from the opposite pole. The comutator switches the current and the cycle starts again. Rapid motion through the magnetic field creates a counter- voltage that reduces the current as the motor speed increases.
4 Motor Operation At zero speed, motor torque is maximum because there is no counter-EMF. At full speed, torque is zero. The motor will not accelerate because the counter-EMF is equal to the supplied voltage (minus some small amount due to friction).
8 Overview of Gears and Roller Chain Drives Gears provide the most efficient power transmission with the greatest power density (power to weight ratio). Most automotive internal combustion engines utilize gears for the transmission of power from the engine to the wheels. However, gears require precision manufacturing to maintain critical dimensions of gear mesh. Adjustable gear mesh can be provided, but in practice, gear adjustment is not generally used. Roller chains and sprockets provide light duty flexible power transmission. As chains wear, however, they change in length, so some adjustment mechanism is usually provided.
9 Drive Train Example BCR summer 2007 prototype base, 4-speed transmission, 6-wheel drive, 2-motors each side The BCR 2008 robot drive base was developed from this base: 4-inch wheels, not 6-inch 2-speed transmission
10 Gear Examples AndyMark 2-speed shifter Shift Style Dog gears, shift-on-the-fly, without clutch, driven by pneumatic cylinder (not included) Weight: 3.6 lbs. Hardware ball bearings 4140 steel gears, 20 dp, 14.5 degree pressure angle 3/32" thick steel side plates, plated 2 - 12 tooth, 35 series sprockets, located on output shaft
11 Double Reduction Gear Box Example Gear box for BCR’s 2008 robot windup drum for the forklift Fisher-Price motor with 19-tooth 32-pitch pinion gear 72-tooth brass spur gear on keyed shaft turns 20-pitch pinion that drives output spur gear to turn the windup drum (not shown) 20-pitch gears are represented as wheels of the gear pitch diameter Total speed reduction (torque increase) is 20:1
12 Spur Gear Details A gear's pitch is its number of teeth divided by its pitch diameter. For example, a gear with 16 teeth and a pitch diameter of 1/2" will have a pitch of 32
14 Gears and Sprockets This is how team 1501 (Indiana) lightens their steel gears and sprockets
15 Roller Chain Chain drives are light weight and flexible, avoiding the precision alignment that gears require. An idler sprocket, either adjustable or on a spring tensioner arm, is often used to keep the chain properly tensioned. In use, a chain should be loose enough to avoid binding of the roller pins, but tight enough to prevent tooth skipping. If there’s no free play at all, it’s too tight. Roller chain should be lubricated with a heavy oil and then wiped clean. Unlubricated chain can wear out and break.
16 Power, Torque, and Speed Calculation For multiple motors on one drive, use the ratio of the motor free speeds for the motor gear ratios Percents of free speeds don’t have to match exactly (close is good enough) Maximum power occurs at about one half of motor free speed, so design for a torque that is slightly lower than that for margin Output torque is motor torque times the gear ratio Use the half-speed torque Reduce output torque by 5% for each stage for gear friction