Presentation on theme: "Food Safety Management Systems"— Presentation transcript:
1 Food Safety Management Systems Instructor NotesIn Sections 5 through 9, you learned how to handle food safely throughout the flow of food. This accumulated knowledge will help you take the next step in preventing foodborne illness, the development of a food safety management system.
2 Apply Your Knowledge: Test Your Food Safety Knowledge True or False: Active managerial control focuses on controlling the most common foodborne-illness risk factors identified by the CDCTrue or False: Purchasing fish directly from a local fisherman would be considered a risk in an active managerial control systemTrue or False: A critical control point (CCP) is a point in the flow of food where a hazard can be prevented, eliminated, or reduced to safe levelsTrue or False: If cooking is a CCP for ground beef patties, then ensuring the internal temperature reaches 155°F (68°C) for fifteen seconds would be an appropriate critical limitTrue or False: An establishment that cures food must have a HACCP planInstructor NotesAnswers:True10-2
3 Food Safety Management Systems A Food Safety Management System is:A group of programs, procedures, and measures for preventing foodborne illnessDesigned to actively control risks and hazards throughout the flow of foodTwo systematic and proactive approachesActive managerial controlHazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP)
4 Prerequisite Food Safety Programs These must be in place for a food safety management system to be effectivePersonal hygiene programSupplier selection and specification programsSanitation and pest control programsInstructor NotesFor your food safety management system to be effective, you must first have the necessary food safety programs in place. The principles you have learned throughout the ServSafe program will help you develop these programs. They address the basic operational and sanitation conditions within your establishment, and can include processes, policies, and procedures.Facility design and equipment maintenance programsFood safety training programs
5 Active Managerial Control Focuses on controlling the CDC’s 5 most common risk factors responsible for foodborne illness:Purchasing food from unsafe sourcesFailing to cook food adequatelyHolding food at improper temperaturesUsing contaminated equipmentPracticing poor personal hygiene
6 Active Managerial Control: The Approach Steps for using active managerial control:Consider the five risk factors as they apply throughout the flow of food and identify any issues that could impact food safety.1
7 Active Managerial Control: The Approach Steps for using active managerial control: continuedDevelop policies and procedures that address the issues that were identifiedConsider input from staffProvide training on these policies and procedures if necessary2
8 Active Managerial Control: The Approach Steps for using active managerial control: continuedRegularly monitor the policies and procedures that have been developedThis step can help determine if the policies and procedures are being followedIf not, it may be necessary to revise them, create new ones, or retrain employees3Instructor NotesThis proactive step is critical to the success of an active managerial control system.
9 Active Managerial Control: The Approach Steps for using active managerial control: continuedVerify that the policies and procedures you have established are actually controlling the risk factorsUse feedback from internal and external sources to adjust the policies and procedures for continuous improvementInternal sources: records, temperature logs, and self inspectionsExternal sources: health inspection reports, customer comments, and quality assurance audits4Instructor NotesAn example of active managerial control is provided in the next four slides. It documents the efforts of a seafood restaurant chain to control one of the CDC’s risk factors for foodborne illness—purchasing food from unsafe sources.
10 Active Managerial Control Example Consider the five risk factors as they apply throughout the flow of food and identify any issues that could impact food safetyA seafood restaurant chain identified purchasing seafood from unsafe sources as a risk in their establishment110-10
11 Active Managerial Control Example: continued Develop policies and procedures that address the issues that were identifiedTo avoid buying unsafe product, the seafood restaurant chain developed a list of approved vendorsNext, they created a policy stating that seafood could only be purchased from vendors on this list210-11
12 Active Managerial Control Example: continued Regularly monitor the policies and procedures that have been developed.To ensure the policy was being followed, the seafood restaurant chain decided that seafood invoices and deliveries would be monitored310-12
13 Active Managerial Control Example: continued Verify that the policies and procedures you have established are actually controlling the risk factors.On a regular basis, the seafood restaurant chain looked at the criteria they had established for selecting seafood vendors, to ensure it was still appropriate for controlling the riskThey also decided to review their policy whenever a problem arose and change it if necessary410-13
14 HACCP: Philosophy The HACCP Philosophy: If significant biological, chemical, or physical hazards are identified at specific points within a product’s flow through the operation, they can be:PreventedEliminatedReduced to safe levelsInstructor NotesA HACCP (Hass-ip) system can also be used to control risks and hazards throughout the flow of food.
15 HACCP: The HACCP PlanTo be effective, a HACCP system must be based on a written plan:It must be specific to each facility’s menu, customers, equipment, processes, and operationsA plan that works for one establishment may not work for another
16 HACCP: The 7 HACCP Principles The Seven HACCP PrinciplesConduct a hazard analysisDetermine critical control points (CCPs)Establish critical limitsEstablish monitoring proceduresIdentify corrective actionsVerify that the system worksEstablish procedures for record keeping and documentation123456Instructor NotesA HACCP plan is based on the seven basic principles outlined by the National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods.These principles are seven sequential steps that outline how to create a HACCP plan. Since each principle builds on the information gained from the previous principle, you must consider all seven principles in order when developing your plan.The information covered in the next several slides is designed to provide participants with an introduction to the seven HACCP Principles and an overview of the process for developing a HACCP program. A real-world example, highlighted in blue, follows each principle. It documents the efforts of Enrico’s, an Italian restaurant, as it implements a HACCP program.7
17 HACCP: The 7 HACCP Principles Principle One: Conduct a Hazard AnalysisIdentify potential hazards in the food served by looking at how it is processedOnce common processes have been identified, determine where hazards are likely to occur for each (biological, chemical, physical)Salads, cold sandwichesPrepareServeInstructor NotesHazards include contamination by:Bacteria, viruses, or parasitesCleaning compounds, sanitizers, and allergensGeneral physical contaminantsAn example of hazard analysis follows on the next slide. It shows how Enrico’s restaurant conducted a hazard analysis for menu items that are prepared, cooked, and then served. This includes their spicy charbroiled chicken breast.Grilled chicken sandwiches, hamburgersPrepareCookServeChili, soup, saucesPrepareCookHoldCoolReheatServe
18 HACCP Example: Conducting a Hazard Analysis Enrico’s looked at their menu and noted:Several dishes, including the spicy charbroiled chicken breast, are received, stored, prepared, cooked, and served the same dayThey determined that:Bacteria were the most likely hazard to food prepared by this process10-18
19 HACCP: The 7 HACCP Principles Principle Two: Determine Critical Control Points (CCPs)Find the points in the process where the identified hazard(s) can be prevented, eliminated, or reduced to safe levels—these are the CCPsDepending on the process, there may be more than one CCPInstructor NotesAn example follows on the next slide. It shows the process that Enrico’s restaurant used to determine the critical control point for their spicy charbroiled chicken breast.
20 HACCP Example: Determine Critical Control Points CCPs Enrico’s identified cooking as a CCP for the chicken breasts:Cooking is the only step that will eliminate or reduce bacteria to safe levelsSince the chicken breasts were prepared for immediate service, cooking was the only CCPCooking is the same CCP for other products prepared and cooked for immediate service10-20
21 HACCP: The 7 HACCP Principles Principle Three: Establish Critical LimitsFor each CCP, establish minimum or maximum limits that must be met to prevent or eliminate the hazard or to reduce it to a safe levelCriticalLimitInstructor NotesAn example follows on the next slide. It shows the critical limit Enrico’s restaurant established for their spicy charbroiled chicken breast.
22 HACCP Example: Establish Critical Limits Since cooking was the CCP for Enrico’s chicken breasts:Management determined that the critical limit would be cooking the chicken to a minimum internal temperature of 165°F (74°C) for fifteen secondsThey decided that:The critical limit could be met by placing the chicken breasts in the broiler for 16 minutes10-22
23 HACCP: The 7 HACCP Principles Principle Four: Establish Monitoring ProceduresDetermine the best way to check critical limits to ensure they are consistently metIdentify who will monitor them and how oftenInstructor NotesAn example follows on the next slide. It shows the monitoring procedures established by Enrico’s to check the critical limit for their spicy charbroiled chicken breast.
24 HACCP Example: Establish Monitoring Procedures Enrico’s chose to check the critical limit by:Inserting a clean and sanitized thermocouple probe into the thickest part of each breastThe grill cook must check the temperature of each chicken breast to ensure it has reached 165°F (74°C)10-24
25 HACCP: The 7 HACCP Principles Principle Five: Identify Corrective ActionsIdentify steps that must be taken when a critical limit is not metDetermine these steps in advanceInstructor NotesAn example follows on the next slide. It shows the corrective action that must be followed by Enrico’s grill cooks when the critical limit for their spicy charbroiled chicken breast is not met.
26 HACCP Example: Identify Corrective Actions At Enrico’s, if the chicken breast has not reached its critical limit:The grill cook must keep cooking the breast until it has been reachedThis and all other corrective actions are noted in the temperature log10-26
27 HACCP: The 7 HACCP Principles Principle Six: Verify That the System WorksDetermine if the plan is working as intendedEvaluate on a regular basis:Monitoring chartsRecordsHow the hazard analysis was performedDetermine if the plan adequately prevents, reduces, or eliminates identified hazardsPhoto courtesy of Roger Bonafield and DingbatsInstructor NotesAn example follows on the next slide. It shows how Enrico’s restaurant verifies that their HACCP system is working.
28 HACCP Example: Verify That the System Works To verify that the system was working, Enrico’s:Checked temperature logs weekly to identify patterns or to determine if processes or procedures needed to be changedThey noticed:Toward the end of each week the chicken breast often failed to meet the critical limitThey discovered their vendor was delivering a slightly larger chicken breastThey worked with the vendor to ensure they received the proper sized chicken and included a weight check during receiving10-28
29 HACCP: The 7 HACCP Principles Principle Seven: Establish Procedures for Record Keeping and DocumentationKeep records obtained when:Developing your HACCP planPerforming monitoring activitiesCorrective action is takenEquipment is validatedWorking with suppliersInstructor NotesMaintain your HACCP plan by keeping the records indicated above.Records obtained when working with suppliers include shelf-life studies, specifications, and challenge studies.An example follows on the next slide. It shows the record keeping requirements established by Enrico’s restaurant in documenting their HACCP program.
30 HACCP Example: Establish Procedures For Record Keeping Enrico’s determined that:Time-temperature logs should be kept for 3 monthsReceiving invoices should be kept for 60 daysEnrico’s uses this information to:Support their HACCP planRevise their HACCP plan when necessaryInstructor NotesIf time permits, review the Another HACCP Example section (Essentials pgs through 10-11). It provides an example of a HACCP plan developed for a fresh fruit product prepared and served without cooking.10-30
31 HACCP: When a HACCP Plan is Required A HACCP Plan is required if an establishment:Smokes or cures food as a method of food preservationUses food additives as a method of food preservationPackages food using a reduced-oxygen packaging (ROP) methodOffers live, molluscan shellfish from a display tankCustom-processes animals for personal usePackages unpasteurized juice for sale to the consumer without a warning labelSprouts beans or seedsInstructor NotesThe National Restaurant Association and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommend that all restaurants and foodservice establishments develop and implement a food safety management system.Establishments are required to have a HACCP plan in place if they perform the activities identified in the slide.10-31
32 Apply Your Knowledge: It’s the Principle of the Thing Identify the HACCP principle defined by each statement:Checking to see if critical limits are being metRetention of documents obtained when creating and implementing a HACCP planAssessing risk within the flow of foodSpecific places in the flow of food where a hazard can be prevented, eliminated, or reduced to safe levelsPredetermined step taken when a critical limit is not metMinimum or maximum boundaries that must be met to prevent a hazardDetermining if the HACCP plan is working as intendedABCDEInstructor NotesAnswers:A. MonitoringB. Record keeping and documentationC. Hazard analysisD. Critical control points (CCPs)E. Corrective actionF. Critical limitsG. VerificationFG10-32
33 Crisis Response: A Foodborne Illness Complaint Responding to a foodborne illness complaint:Take all customer complaints seriouslyExpress concern and be sincereDo not admit responsibility or accept liabilityListen carefully and promise to investigate and respondConsider developing an incident report (with legal guidance)Instructor NotesIn a foodborne illness outbreak, you may be able to avert a crisis by responding quickly if you receive customer complaints. Take all customer complaints seriously.
34 Crisis Response: A Confirmed Foodborne Illness Outbreak If a Foodborne Illness Outbreak is Confirmed:Accept responsibilityCooperate with the investigationCrisis response may include:Isolating suspect foodPreventing further sale of suspect foodObtaining samples from affected customerExcluding suspect employees from the establishmentInstructor NotesAccepting responsibility is not the same as admitting liability. While customers may have become ill from eating food in your operation, the cause may have been beyond your control and not your fault.
35 HACCP: When a HACCP Plan Is Required (2010 Update) A HACCP plan is required if an operation: continuedPackages food using ROP methods including:MAPVacuum-packedSous videTreats (e.g., pasteurizes) juice on-site and packages it for later saleSprouts seeds or beansOffers live, molluscan shellfish from a display tankInstructor NotesAlways check with your local regulatory authority to see if a variance is also required when prepping food in these ways.A HACCP plan is required when packaging food using reduced-oxygen packaging (ROP) methods. This includes MAP, vacuum-packed, and sous vide food. Clostridium botulinum and Listeria monocytogenes are risks to food packaged in these ways.