2 Warm-Up ActivityIn your own words, define theory. Are you familiar with any theories of personality development?
3 Essential QuestionsWhat are some key ideas associated with Freud’s theory of personality development?What are Erikson’s eight stages of personality development?What is Maslow’s theory of self-actualization?
4 Theories of personality What is a theory?An organized set of ideas used to explain somethingThree important theories of personality were proposed by:Sigmund FreudErik EriksonAbraham Maslow
5 Freud An Austrian physician interested in mental illness (late 1800’s) He concluded that each individual’s personality is made up of three parts:IdEgoSuperego
6 FreudIdConsists of biological urges such as hunger and thirstEgoIs the thoughtful, decision-making part of the personalityExample: if the id urges you to eat, the ego would help you find foodSuperegoIs the part of the personality that judges right and wrong, or what you might refer to as your consciousExample: the superego would direct you not to steal the food that your id urges you to eat
7 Freud Conscious thoughts are those thoughts of which a person is aware Unconscious thoughts are those of which a person is not awareExample: a forgotten childhood eventFreud believed that adult personalities are shaped mainly by early childhood experiences and conflictsHe believed these memories are stored in the unconscious
8 FreudFreud believed that by undergoing psychoanalysis, a treatment technique that brings memories into the conscious mind, the inner conflicts can be resolved
9 EriksonErikson devised an eight-stage theory of personality developmentHe believes that an individual’s personality continues to be influenced by experiences beyond childhoodAccording to Erikson, people continue to develop socially and psychologically up until their deathLook at Figure 2-5 on page 29…
10 MaslowBelieved that everyone has a basic drive to achieve his or her fullest potentialMaslow used the term self-actualization to describe the process by which each person strives to be all that he or she can be
11 Maslow Personality traits of self-actualized people: Realistic AcceptingIndependent, self-sufficientAppreciative of lifeConcerned about humankindCapable of loving othersFair, unprejudicedCreativeHardworkingNot afraid to be different
12 Maslow Maslow found that few people ever reach their full potential Maslow suggested that before people could achieve self-actualization, their basic needs had to be metMaslow put these needs in an ascending order, called the hierarchy of needsAt the base of the hierarchy is what Maslow considered to be a person’s most urgent needs: physical needs of the bodyGetting enough sleep, exercising, and satisfying hunger and thirst