Next Generation Science/Common Core Standards Addressed! CCSS.ELA Literacy Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to the precise details of explanations or descriptions..RST.9 ‐ 10.1 CCSS.ELA Literacy.RST.11 ‐ 12.3 Follow precisely a complex multistep procedure when carrying out experiments, taking measurements,or performing technical tasks; analyze the specific results based on ex HSNQ. HSNQ.A.1 Use units as a way to understand problems and to guide the solution of multi ‐ step problems; choose and interpret units consistently in formulas; choose and interpret the scale and the origin in graphs and
Bell Work/Student Learning Objectives Discuss designing for building strength. Discuss and compare building shapes. Discuss and compare framing systems. Explain how to identify building framework components. Explain how to lay out rafters.
Terms Band joists Bird’s mouth Block plate or sill plate Bridging Clear-span buildings Collar tie Concrete block building Curved half-arch buildings Dead loads Fascia Floor joists Full-arch type building Gable-type building Gambrel-type roof Girts Header Hip-type roof Jack studs
Terms Continued Light wood-frame (stud) construction Live loads Lower cripples Lower plate Lower plumb line Overhang length Pole buildings Purlins Rafter tail Rigid arch building Rise Roof pitch Rough sill Run Shed-type building Sill sealer Slope triangle Soffit
Interest Approach What type of framing is used on machine sheds and houses? Why do these buildings fail (fall down)? What are some parts of a building?
What can be done to prevent building failures? Buildings are built from the opposite order they are decided upon. 1 st type of roof is decided 2 nd type of side construction is decided Finally foundation or support is decided because it depends on weight and style of house
Potential Building Weak Points Foundation-wall joint - Points where the walls and foundation meet. Wall-roof joint - Points where the walls meet the roof. Roof ridge joint - Point where the roof peaks.
Designing Buildings That Will Withstand Loads and Stresses Dead Load constant permanent load parts of the structure such as the weight of the roof inside
Designing Buildings That Will Withstand Loads and Stresses Live Load temporary loads that can be moved without altering the structure. –Wind Load (maximum PSI expected) –Snow Load (maximum PSI probably)
Building Shapes Shed-type building - roof sloping in one direction Gable-type building - one roof angle on each side with the peak in the middle Hip-type roof - similar to gable-type except the roof is brought down to the height of side walls
Building Shapes Gambrel-type roof - two different slopes on each side. Full or Half arch roof - steel rounded building
Building Framing Systems Light wood - frame (stud) construction - concrete foundation with stud walls with 2x4 or 2x6 studs. Pole building - Round poles that are spaced 10 to 14 ft apart; usually inexpensive to build.
Building Framing Systems Rigid arch building - metal or wooden framework with the roof framing and wall framing fastened together Concrete block building - concrete block walls with rafter or trusses to form the roof; usually more expensive to build
How Rafters are marked out Builder needs to know: Span (full width) Run (half width of building) Rise (total height increase from walls to peak of roof)
How rafters are marked Roof pitch- defined as the rise or span Slope triangle- inches of rise or foot of run
How rafters are marked Look at the common rafter table on the framing square. Look under the inch mark that represents the rise or foot of run for the building in question. Multiply that number by the total run. Divide the answer by 12 to get the rafter length in feet. The rafter length is marked out on a marking line (1½ inches from the bottom of a 2 ×4 or 2inches from the bottom of a 2 ×6).
How rafters are marked The upper plumb line is the marked angle at the top of the rafter. It is marked using the rise or foot of run and the number 12. Measure where the upper plumb line intersects with the marking line at the upper end of the board along the marking line to the length that was calculated.
How rafters are marked That location will be the point of the bird’s mouth. The bird’s mouth is the notch in the rafter where it sets on the wall. The angled cut at the lower end of the rafter is called the lower plumb line. The rafter tail is the rafter from the bird’s mouth to the lower plumb line.
How rafters are marked When the rafter is in place on the roof, the horizontal distance from the bird’s mouth notch to the lower plumb line is called the overhang length.
How rafters are marked To calculate the rafter tail length that is marked on the board, take the number on the rafter table under the rise or foot of run and multiple it by the desired overhang length. All rafter cuts are marked using the rise or foot of run and the number 12.
Rafter marking example For example, the rafter for a 5–12 building would be marked using the numbers 6 and 12.
Rafter marking example If the building total run was 10 feet and the overhang was 2 feet, then using the number 13.00 inches found under the 5 in the rafter table would result in a rafter length of 130 inches or 10 foot 10 inches (13 × 10) and a overhang length of 26 inches or 2 foot 2 inches (13 inches × 2). If a ridge piece is used between a pair of rafters each rafter must be shortened by half of the width of the ridge piece.
Review/Summary What are some potential weak points of buildings? What are some different building shapes? What are some different framing systems? How do you lay out a rafter?