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The Immune & Respiratory Systems Warm-up:. Lymph and Immunity— the human body book “The human body is protected by both its skin and the by the lymph.

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Presentation on theme: "The Immune & Respiratory Systems Warm-up:. Lymph and Immunity— the human body book “The human body is protected by both its skin and the by the lymph."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Immune & Respiratory Systems Warm-up:

2 Lymph and Immunity— the human body book “The human body is protected by both its skin and the by the lymph and immune systems. Every day it is open to attack from two types of hostility. One is external: the daily battle against physical harm and lingering germs. The other adversaries are within, such as germs that have gained entry, and the body’s own cells which can set up diseases such as cancers. The immune system fights wars on both fronts. Its chief troops are robing white blood cells. Their transport and supply networks use the blood as well as the fluid, vessels, and nodes (glands) of the lymphatic system.”

3 The Immune/Lymphatic System The body system that removes harmful organisms from the blood and combats pathogens. Made up of lymph, lymph nodes, lymph vessels, tonsils, the thymus gland, and the spleen.

4 How the Immune system works pathogens Protects your body from pathogens (a germ that causes disease) and provides immunity to disease. lymph The lymphatic system consists of a network of vessels and tissues that move and filter lymph (a clear liquid that surrounds body cells and circulates in lymph vessels). Lymph contains water and proteins. It also contains fats and specialized white blood cells called lymphocytes.

5 How the Immune system works Lymphocytes protect the body against pathogens. There are two types of lymphocytes: B cells – multiply when they come in contact with a pathogen. Produce antibodies or defense proteins. Create an immune system response by preventing a 2 nd attack of the same disease. T cells – there are two main types; they multiply and enlarge when they come in contact with a pathogen. Killer cells – release toxins that prevent infections from spreading. Helper cells – activates both the B cells and killer T cells; they control the body’s immune system.

6 How lymph circulation works lymphocytes attack pathogens Pathogens filtered into lymph Lymph carried to lymph node via lymph vessels Lymph node filters and destroys pathogens Lymph then returned toward heart to lymphatic duct Lymphatic duct dumps lymph into veins near heart where lymph is returned to blood.

7 Organs of the lymphatic system Spleen Spleen Largest of the lymph organs. Acts as a store for some types of lymphocytes. Major site for filtering blood. Thymus gland Thymus gland Site of maturations of T-cells. T-cells develop from stem cells. Tonsils Tonsils – help to fight infections; help guard against inhaled microbes. Adenoids Adenoids – help filter incoming air and destroy microorganisms. Shrink as you get older. Appendix Appendix – function unknown.


9 How to Keep Your Immune System Healthy Choose foods that are high in protein and vitamin B. Keep accurate records of all immunizations. Get plenty of rest and sleep. Exercise to keep bones dense and to protect bone marrow.

10 The Respiratory System— the human body book “Oxygen is vital for life. The respiratory system transfers oxygen from air to blood so that the cardiovascular system can distribute it, while the muscular and skeletal systems drive the movements of breathing. The air is often contaminated with dust particles, harmful microbes, allergens, and hazardous irritant, and cancer-causing chemicals; smokers further boost these last three categories. All of these items can damage the system’s delicate parts, making respiratory disorders among the most common of all illnesses.

11 The Respiratory System The respiratory system is the body system that provides body cells with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide that cells produce as waste.

12 How Respiration Works Diaphragm The Diaphragm (a muscle) contracts and relaxes to allow air into the lungs. Lungs Lungs Air moves into the lungs through the trachea (windpipe). The trachea branches out into two bronchi (the main airways that reach into each lung). The airways become smaller as they branch out deeper into the lungs forming bronchioles. At the end of the bronchioles are groups of microscopic structures called alveoli.

13 Alveoli – thin- walled air sacs covered with capillaries. Gas exchange takes place as oxygen and carbon dioxide spread across the walls of the capillaries and alveoli.

14 Maintaining Your Respiratory Health Respiratory problems can affect the functioning of other body systems. Some helpful behaviors that should become regular habits for a healthy Respiratory system: Do not smoke Smoking damages all parts of the respiratory system and is the leading cause of lung cancer. Can cause bronchitis and emphysema. Avoid breathing secondhand smoke Do not inhale harmful drugs Avoid breathing polluted air Exercise regularly Improves the capacity of the lungs to pass oxygen into the blood. Wash your hands regularly to help prevent infectio

15 Respiratory System Problems Sinusitis Sinusitis inflammation of the tissues that line the sinuses. Caused by allergies or an infection. Bronchitis Bronchitis Inflammation of the bronchi caused by infection or exposure to irritants such as tobacco smoke or air pollution. The membranes that line the bronchi produce excessive mucus in the airways, blocking them. Symptoms – coughing, wheezing, and shortness of breath. Asthma Asthma An inflammatory condition in which the trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles become narrowed, causing difficulty breathing.

16 Respiratory System Problems Pneumonia Pneumonia Inflammation of the lungs commonly caused by a bacterial or viral infection. Alveoli swell and become clogged with mucus, decreasing the amount of gas exchange. Symptoms – cough, fever, chills and chest pain. Tuberculosis Tuberculosis Contagious bacterial infection that usually affects the lungs. Symptoms – cough, fever, fatigue, and weight loss. Treatment – antibiotics and hospitalization.

17 Emphysema Emphysema Disease the progressively destroys the walls of the alveoli. Symptoms – difficulty breathing and chronic cough. Symptoms can be treated but damage is permanent. Usually a result of smoking. Respiratory System Problems


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