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Chapter 12 The Lymphatic System Biology 110 Tri-County Technical College Pendleton, SC.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 12 The Lymphatic System Biology 110 Tri-County Technical College Pendleton, SC."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 12 The Lymphatic System Biology 110 Tri-County Technical College Pendleton, SC

2 Lymphatic Components Lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, & various lymphatic organs and tissues Has two semi-independent parts –Meandering network of lymphatic vessels –Various scattered lymphoid tissues and organs Vessels transport fluids that escaped from blood vascular system back to blood Organs house phagocytic cells/lymphocytes essential in body defense & resistance to disease

3 Lymph System Visual

4 Vessels and “Ebb and Flow” Vessels pick up excess tissue fluid (lymph) and return it to bloodstream Lymphatics form one-way system and lymph flows ONLY toward heart Lymph capillaries spiderweb between tissue cells and blood capillaries in loose CT Absorb leaked fluid (mostly water & small dissolved proteins Lymph capillaries remarkably permeable

5 Lymph Flow Visual

6 Vessels, cont. All lymph vessels drain into 2 large vessels –RIGHT lymphatic duct drains right arm and right side of head and thorax –THORACIC duct drains rest of body BOTH empty into Subclavian vein on their side of body Vessels are thin-walled and larger ones have “valves Is low pressure but pumpless system

7 Lymph System Visual

8 Vessels, cont. Lymph transported by same mechanisms that aid return of venous blood –Milking action of skeletal muscles and pressure changes in thorax during breathing –Smooth muscle in walls of larger lymphatic vessels contracts rhythmically which helps “pump” lymph –Valves in larger vessels prevent backflow

9 Lymph Nodes Nodes are located along lymphatic vessels Lymph filtered as passes through 1000s of nodes Large clusters found in inguinal, axillary, and cervical regions of body Nodes may enlarge (become swollen) during active infection Nodes composed of soft reticular connective tissue

10 We still talking about nodes…? Macrophages located within nodes –Engulf and destroy bacteria/viruses/foreign substances in lymph before its returned to blood Plasma cells for antibody production also located in nodes Collections of lymphocytes (WBC type) also in nodes and respond to foreign substances in lymph stream

11 Nodes, nodes, and nodes Nodes composed of outer cortex containing collections of lymphocytes called follicles –Follicles have germinal centers = generate plasma cells that release antibodies –Rest of cortical cells = lymphocytes in transit Inner medulla area contains phagocytic macrophages Enters cortex of node via afferent lymphatic vessels  sinuses  exits node at HILUS via efferent lymphatic vessels

12 Node Structure Visual

13 Lymphatic Organs Spleen, thymus, tonsils, & Peyer’s patches Spleen located in left hypochondriac region Filters/cleanses blood of bacteria, viruses, and other debris Most important function=destroy worn-out RBCs and recycle iron to make hemoglobin –Some iron secreted in bile

14 Organs, cont. Spleen also stores platelets and acts as blood reservoir (so does liver) Produces blood in the fetus In adults, spleen produces only lymphocytes Meanwhile, back at the ranch, and not wanting to waste space, I am practicing my typing skills, and if I may say so, not doing too badly for a over the hill ex-long haired bearded hippy….

15 Thymus Gland Functions at peak levels during youth Is lymphatic mass found in throat overlying heart Produces the hormone THYMOSIN that functions in programming lymphocytes so they can perform protective roles in body NOT active during adulthood

16 Say ahh……!!!! Tonsils are small masses of lymphatic tissue that ring pharynx where they are found in the mucosa Trap and remove bacteria/other foreign pathogens entering throat May become swollen and red = tonsillitis My mom treated with warm salt water gargle, but I have switched to aspirin

17 Peyer’s Patches Found in walls of small intestines In ideal location to capture/destroy bacteria that could cause enteritis Tonsils & Peyer’s patches part of “mucosa- associated lymphatic tissue” (MALT) Acts as sentinel to protect upper respiratory and the digestive tract from never-ending attacks of foreign matter entering those cavities

18 Lymph Organs Visual

19 Antibodies and more… B lymphocytes (B cells) produce antibodies and oversee humoral immunity T lymphocytes (T cells) constitute cell- mediated arm of immunity Antibodies called Immunoglobulins (Igs) GMADE Heavy and light chains; Variable and Constant regions

20 Antibody Visual

21 Antibodies, cont. IgG is most abundant is ONLY type that can cross placenta Only IgM and IgG fix complement IgA found only in mucus (major role in preventing pathogens from gaining entry into body IgE “troublemaker” involved in allergies

22 What it are…?

23 Antibody Action Inactive antigens by complement fixation, neutralization, agglutination, and precipitation Complement fixation and neutralization most important to body function Complement is chief weapon against cellular antigens (bacteria/mismatched blood cells)

24 Complement Action Visual

25 I know what it is, but how does it work?

26 Acquired Immunity Visual

27 Autoimmune Disorders Body produces antibodies (autoantibodies) and sensitized T cells that attack and damage its own tissues Graves disease-thyroid gland produces excess thyroxine Multiple sclerosis, Myasthenia gravis, Juvenile (I) diabetes mellitus, Systemic lupus erythematosus, Glomerulonephritis, and Rheumatoid arthritis (p. 396)

28 Same Coin but Two Sides

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