Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

The Lymphatic System and Body Defenses

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "The Lymphatic System and Body Defenses"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Lymphatic System and Body Defenses

2 The Lymphatic System Consists of two semi-independent parts
Lymphatic vessels Lymphoid tissues and organs Lymphatic system functions Transport fluids back to the blood Body defense and resistance to disease

3 Lymphatic Characteristics
Lymph – excess tissue fluid carried by lymphatic vessels Properties of lymphatic vessels One way system toward the heart No pump Lymph moves toward the heart Milking action of skeletal muscle Rhythmic contraction of smooth muscle in vessel walls

4 Lymphatic Vessels Lymph Capillaries
Walls overlap to form flap-like minivalves Fluid leaks into lymph capillaries Capillaries are anchored to connective tissue by filaments Higher pressure on the inside closes minivalves

5 Lymphatic Vessels

6 Lymphatic Vessels Lymphatic collecting vessels
Collects lymph from lymph capillaries Carries lymph to and away from lymph nodes Returns fluid to circulatory veins near the heart at the right lymphatic duct or thoracic duct

7 Lymph Lymph returned to the blood is composed of: Water Blood cells
Proteins Harmful materials that enter lymph vessels Bacteria Viruses Cancer cells Cell debris

8 Lymph Nodes Filter lymph before returning to the blood
Contain defense cells: Macrophages – engulf and destroy foreign substances Lymphocytes – provide immune response to antigens

9 Lymph Nodes

10 Lymph Node Structure Most are kidney-shaped, <1 inch long
Cortex - outer part Contains follicles with lymphocytes Medulla - Inner part Contains phagocytic macrophages

11 The Flow of Lymph Through Nodes
Lymph enters the convex side through afferent lymphatic vessels Lymph flows through a number of sinuses inside the node Lymph exits through efferent lymphatic vessels Fewer efferent than afferent vessels causes flow to be slowed

12 Other Lymphoid Organs Several other organs contribute to lymphatic function: Spleen Thymus Tonsils Peyer’s patches

13 The Spleen Located on the left side of the abdomen
Filters blood – cleanses blood of bacteria, viruses and debris Destroys worn out blood cells Stores platelets Acts as a blood reservoir Forms blood cells in the fetus (hematopoietic) Produces lymphocytes only in the adut spleen

14 The Thymus Located low in the throat, overlying the heart
Functions at peak levels only during childhood Produces hormones (like thymosin) to program lymphocytes

15 Tonsils Small masses of lymphoid tissue around the pharynx
Traps and removes bacteria and other foreign materials Tonsillitis = is caused by congestion with bacteria

16 Peyer’s Patches Found in the wall of the small intestine
Resemble tonsils in structure Capture and destroy bacteria in the intestine

17 Mucosa-Associated Lymphatic Tissue (MALT)
Includes: Peyer’s patches Tonsils Other small accumulations of lymphoid tissue Acts as a sentinal to protect respiratory and digestive tracts from foreign matter

18 Body Defenses The body is constantly in contact with bacteria, fungi, and viruses The body has two defense systems for foreign materials Nonspecific defense system Specific defense system

19 Body Defenses Nonspecific defense system Specific defense system
Mechanisms protect against a variety of invaders Responds immediately to protect body from foreign materials Provided by body surface coverings intact skin, mucous membrane, cellular proteins and inflammatory response. Specialized human cells Chemicals produced by the body Specific defense system Known as the immune system Specific defense is required for each type of invader

20 Body Defenses Figure 12.6

21 Surface Membrane Barriers 1st Line of Defense
The skin Physical barrier to foreign materials pH of the skin is acidic to inhibit bacterial growth Sebum is toxic to bacteria Vaginal secretions are very acidic Stomach mucosa Secretes hydrochloric acid Has protein-digesting enzymes Saliva and lacrimal fluid contain lysozyme Mucus traps microogranisms in digestive and respiratory pathways

22 Defensive Cells Phagocytes (neutrophils and macrophages)
Engulfs foreign material into a vacuole Enzymes from lysosomes digest the material Natural killer cells Can lyse and kill cancer cells Can destroy virus- infected cells Figure 12.7a

23 Events of Phagocytosis

24 Inflammatory Response – 2nd Line of Defense
Triggered when body tissues are injured Produces four cardinal signs Redness Heat Swelling Pain Results in a chain of events leading to protection and healing Inflammatory Response

25 Functions of the Inflammatory Response
Prevents spread of damaging agents Disposes of cell debris and pathogens Sets the stage for repair

26 The Inflammatory Response
Begins with a chemical ‘alarm”- Histamines when cells are injured Blood vessels dilate increases blood flow to area causing redness and heat. Capillary beds become permeable becoming leaky, which increases edema Pain receptors are activated Phagocytes and WBC are attracted to the area: Chemotaxis = cells follow chemical gradient

27 Antimicrobial Chemicals
Complement proteins 20 active plasma proteins circulating in the blood Attach to foreign cells and fight against them. Interferon Secreted proteins of virus-infected cells Bind to healthy cell surfaces to inhibit viruses binding

28 Fever Abnormally high body temperature
Systemic response to invading microorganisms Heat regulated by Hypothalmus ‘thermostate’ - reset upwards by pyrogens (secreted by white blood cells) High temperatures inhibit the release of iron and zinc from liver and spleen needed by bacteria Fever also increases the speed of tissue repair

29 Specific Defense: The Immune System 3rd Line of Defense
Antigen specific – recognizes and acts against particular foreign substances It stalks and eliminates any invading pathogen Systemic – not restricted to the initial infection site Has memory – recognizes and mounts a stronger attack on previously encountered pathogens

30 2 Types of Immunity Humoral immunity Cellular immunity
Its Antibody-mediated immunity where antibodies are present in the body’s fluids Cells produce chemicals for defense Cellular immunity Cell-mediated immunity where lymphocytes themselves defend the body. Cells are the protective factors that target virus infected cells

31 Antigens (Nonself = foreign intruders)
Antigen = any substance capable of exciting the immune system and provoking an immune response Examples of common antigens: foreign proteins, nucleic acids, large carbohydrates, pollen grains, microorganisms As the immunity system develops, it inventories all these proteins so it recognizes them as self.

32 Self-Antigens Human cells have many surface proteins
Our immune cells do not attack our own proteins Our cells in another person’s body can trigger an immune response because they are foreign Restricts donors for transplants

33 Allergies Many small molecules (called haptens or incomplete antigens) are not antigenic, but link up with our own proteins The immune system may recognize and respond to a protein-hapten combination The immune response is harmful rather than protective because it attacks our own cells Haptens are found in chemicals, poison ivy, animal dander, detergens, hair dyes, cosmetics, housefold/industrial products.

34 Crucial Cells of the Immune System
2 types of Lymphocytes B lymphocytes (B cells) become immunocompetent in the bone marrow; produce antibodies, oversee humoral immunity. T lymphocytes (T cells) become immunocompetent in the thymus; Originate from hemocytoblasts in the red bone marrow Macrophages Arise from monocytes Become widely distributed in lymphoid organs Do not respond to specific antigens but help lymphocytes do that

35 Activation of Lymphocytes

36 Secondary Response Memory cells are long-lived
A second exposure causes a rapid response The secondary response is stronger and longer lasting Figure 12.13

37 Active Immunity Your B cells encounter antigens and produce antibodies
Active immunity can be naturally or artificially acquired (vaccines Figure 12.14

38 Passive Immunity Antibodies are obtained from someone else
From a mother to her fetus Artificially from immune serum or gamma globulin Immunological memory does not occur Protection provided by “borrowed antibodies” is short-lived

39 Monoclonal Antibodies
Antibodies prepared for clinical testing or diagnostic services Produced from descendents of a single cell line and exhibit specificity for only one antigen. Examples of uses for monoclonal antibodies Diagnosis of pregnancy Treatment after exposure to hepatitis and rabies

40 Antibodies (Immunoglobulins) (Igs)
Soluble proteins secreted by B cells (plasma cells) Carried in blood plasma Capable of binding specifically to an antigen Figure 12.15a

41 Antibody Structure Four amino acid chains linked by disulfide bonds
Two identical amino acid chains are linked to form a heavy chain The other two identical chains are light chains Specific antigen-binding sites are present Figure 12.15b

42 Antibody Classes Antibodies of each class have slightly different roles Five major immunoglobulin classes IgM – can fix complement IgA – found mainly in mucus IgD – important in activation of B cell IgG – can cross the placental barrier IgE – involved in allergies

43 T Cell Clones Cytotoxic T cells Specialize in killing infected cells
Insert a toxic chemical (perforin) Helper T cells Recruit other cells to fight the invaders Interact directly with B cells Suppressor T cells Release chemicals to suppress the activity of T and B cells Stop the immune response to prevent uncontrolled activity A few members of each clone are memory cells

44 Organ Transplants and Rejection
Major types of grafts Autografts – tissue transplanted from one site to another on the same person Isografts – tissue grafts from an identical person (identical twin) Allografts – tissue taken from an unrelated person Xenografts – tissue taken from a different animal species (Bovine)

45 Organ Transplants and Rejection
Autografts and isografts are ideal donors Xenografts are never successful Allografts are more successful with a closer tissue match

46 Disorders of the Immunity
Allergies (Hypersensitivity) Immunodeficiencies Autoimmune Diseases

47 Disorders of Immunity: Allergies (Hypersensitivity)
Abnormal, vigorous immune responses (2) Types of allergies: 1)- Immediate hypersensitivity Triggered by release of histamine from IgE binding to mast cells Reactions begin within seconds of contact with allergen Anaphylactic shock – dangerous, systemic response

48 Disorders of Immunity: Allergies (Hypersensitivity)
2) Delayed hypersensitivity Triggered by release of lymphokines from activated helper T cells Symptoms usually appear 1–3 days after contact with antigen Example: Contact dermititis

49 Disorders of Immunity: Immunodeficiencies
Production or function of immune cells or complement is abnormal May be congenital or acquired Includes AIDS – Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome SCID – Severe combined immunodeficiency disease (bubble babies)

50 Autoimmune Diseases The immune system does not distinguish between self and nonself The body produces antibodies and sensitized T lymphocytes that attack its own tissues Multiple sclerosis – myelin sheath of brain & spinal cord are destroyed Myasthenia gravis – impairs communication between nerves & skeletal muscles Glomerulonephritis – impairment of renal function Type I diabetes – destroys pancreatic beta cells that produce insulin Rheumatoid arthritis – destroys joints Systemic lupus erythematosus – affects kidney, heart, lung & skin

51 Developmental Aspects of the Lymphatic System
Lymphoid organs are poorly developed before birth, except the thymus & spleen A newborn has no functioning lymphocytes at birth; only passive immunity from the mother If lymphatics are removed or lost, severe edema results, but vessels grow back in time

Download ppt "The Lymphatic System and Body Defenses"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google