Presentation on theme: "GSM system Global System for Mobile Communications"— Presentation transcript:
1 GSM system Global System for Mobile Communications Introduced in Settings of standards under ETSI (European Telecommunication Standards Institute)ServicesTelephone servicesData servicesShort message paging
2 GSM systemSystem Architecture : three major subsystems
3 Network and Switching Subsystem (NSS) MSCs, Visitor Location Register (VLR), Home Location Register (HLR), Authentication Center (AUC) and Equipment Identity Register (EIR).Switching of GSM calls between external networks and the BSCs.Managing and providing external access to several customer databases, such asHLR : contains subscriber information (International Mobile Subscriber Identity -IMSI) and location information for each user who resides in the same city as the MSC.VLR : temporarily stores the IMSI and customer information for each roaming subscriber who is visiting the coverage area of a particular MSC. Once a roaming mobile is logged in the VLR, the MSC sends the necessary information to the visiting subscriber’s HLR so that calls to the roaming mobile can be appropriately routed over the PSTN by the roaming user’s HLR.AUC : Strongly protected database which handles the authentication and encryption keys for every single subscriber in the HLR and VLR.
4 Radio Subsystem (Base Station Subsystem BSS): Mobile stations (MS), Base Transceiver Station (BTS) and the Base Station Controller (BSC)Provides and manages radio transmission paths between the MS and MSC.One BSC controls up to several hundred BTSs.BSC performs handover for MS under the control of same BSC.
5 Operation Support Subsystem (OSS) Support the operation and maintenance of GSM and allows system engineers to monitor, diagnose and troubleshoot all aspects of the GSM system.Interacts with the other GSM subsystems.Charging and billing.
7 TDMA/FDMA/FDDUses both TDMA and FDMA to transmit and recover information.Systems are FDD.
8 Location ManagementIn mobile networks, location management is an important mechanism that enables the network to discover the current attachment point of a MS so as to facilitate successful information delivery.For GSM networks, location information about MSs is maintained by registration, whereby MSs update their registration area(s) information with HLR and VLR, in the event of changes in the registration areas(s).Radio bandwidth normally needs to be reserved for carrying location management traffic, which comprises of two major components: paging and location update. Paging is the process of searching for a MS in the vicinity of its last-known location, typically in an area of several cell sizes which is also known as a location area (LA), so as to connect an incoming call.Location update is the process undertaken by a MS to inform the network of any changes in its current location. Location updates typically occur each time a MS crosses an LA boundary.
9 Location ManagementCurrent GSM Location Management Scheme. A service area comprises of 9 cells are partitioned into 3 static LA, each having 4, 2 and 3 cells, respectively.
10 Location ManagementThe location management scheme of GSM Mobile is given in IS-41. It is based on partitioning the cells into static registration areas known as location areas (LAs).Location updates are to be performed when MSs cross the partitioning of LA so that up-to-date location information for each MS on is stored in the respective HLR and VLR.Since the location information of each MS is tracked on a resolution that is dependent on the size of the LA, to facilitate a successful data delivery, all the cells within the LA have to be paged concurrently.
11 Frequency domainThe frequency band for uplink (reverse) is MHz, downlink (forward) is MHz.The bandwidth for the GSM system is 25MHz, which provides 125 carriers uplink/downlink each having a bandwidth of 200 kHz. The ARFCN (Absolute radio frequency channel numbers) denotes a forward and reverse channel pair which is separated in frequency by 45 MHz.Base-to-mobile : Fu (n) = (n −1) MHzMobile-to-base : Fd (n) = Fu (n) + 45 MHzIn practical implementations, a guard band of 100kHz is provided at the upper and lower end of the GSM spectrum, and only 124 (duplex) channels are implemented.
12 Frequency domainThere are a total of eight channels per carrier. Every eighth timeslot on a TDMA channel, the user transmits or receives his information.A second frequency band from MHz and MHz (three times as much as primary 900MHz) are also specified in 1990, a total of 374 duplex channels – DCS 1800GSM has chosen the four-cell repeat pattern for the frequency reuse cell sets. In most cases, each cell is divided into 120-deg sectors, with three base transceiver subsystems in each cell. Each base transceiver has a 120-deg antenna.These 12 sectors (called cells in GSM system) share the 124 channels.
13 Time domainRF carrier channel is time division multiple accessed by users at different locations within a cell site.Frame duration is 4.615ms, and each frame consists of 8 time-slots.Each of the time-slot is a traffic channel having time duration 0.577ms (3/5200s).The start of an uplink TDMA frame is delayed with respect to downlink by three timeslots. Staggering TDMA frames allows the same timeslot number (TN) to be used in both directions.
15 Multiframe26 frames (traffic or speech ~): Traffic CHannel (TCH), Slow Associated Control CHannel (SACCH), Fast Associated Control CHannel (FACCH).51 frames (control ~) : Broadcast Common Control (BCC), Stand Alone Dedicated Control Channels,..Superframe : 51 traffic multiframes or 26 control multiframes.Hyperframe : 2048 superframes (3 hrs 28 min s), to support encryption with high security and frequency hopping.
16 Timeslot and Frame structure 1 super high frame = 2048 super frame = TDMA frame2045204620473212044494748502425BCCH1 super frame = 1326 TDMA frame（6.12s）CCCHSACCH/TCHSDCHFACCH1 multiplex frame = 26 TDMA frames（120ms）1 multiplex frame = 51 TDMA frame12425149501 TDMA frame = 8 timeslot（120/26 = 4.615ms）123456716
17 Physical Channel & Logical Channel Physical Channel : specified by ARFCN and TN.Logical Channel : is mapped onto the physical channel. E.g, TCHs and control channels.
19 Traffic Channel (TCH)Traffic channels carry digitally encoded user speech or user data. Have identical functions and formats on both the forward and reverse link.Full rate : user data is contained within one TS per frame. Half rate : user data is mapped onto the same time slot, but is sent in alternate frames.TCH/FS : Full rate speech, raw data sent at 13kbps, with GSM channel coding 22.8kbps.TCH/HS : Half rate speech, raw data sent at 6.5kbps, with GSM channel coding 11.4kbps.TCH/F9.6 : Full raw data rate 9.6kbps, send at 22.8kbps.TCH/F4.8, TCH/F2.4TCH/H4.8, TCH/H2.4
22 Control (Signaling) Channels Broadcast CHannel (BCH)Common Control CHannel (CCCH)Dedicated Control CHannel (DCCH)
23 BCH Broadcast channel (BCH) -- Only on downlink Broadcast control channel (BCCH)Broadcast cell and network informationCell and network identityList of channels in useFrequency correction channel (FCCH)Occupies TS0 of first frameRepeated every 10th frame within a control channel multiframeSynchronization of local oscillator (radio frequency) to base station oscillator.Synchronization channel (SCH)Broadcast in TS0 immediately following a FCCH frame.Allows for frame synchronizationBase station issues timing advancement commands.
24 Common control channel (CCCH) Occupies TS0 of every control frame not used by BCH or the Idle Frame.Paging channel (PCH)Provides paging signals from base to mobiles.Notifies specific mobile of incoming callRandom access channel (RACH)Uplink channelUsed by mobiles to acknowledge page from PCHUsed by mobiles to originate a callAccess grant channel (AGCH)Provides forward link communication to mobile.Specifies time slot, radio channel and dedicated control channel.AGCH is final CCCH message before mobile is moved off the control channel.
25 Dedicated control channel (DCCH) Bi-directional channels with same format and function on uplink and downlink.May exist in any time slot and on any radio channel except TS0 of the control radio channel.Stand-alone dedicated control channel (SDCCH)Carries signaling data following the connection of the mobile with BS.Intermediate and temporary channel for mobiles while waiting for the BS to allocate a TCH channel.Ensures that mobile and base remains connected during authentication and resource allocation.Maybe assigned their own physical channel or may occupy TS0 of the BCH if there is low demand for BCH or CCCH traffic.
26 Dedicated control channel (DCCH) Slow associated control channel (SACCH)Always associated with a traffic channelOn downlink the SACCH carries power control and timing advance instructionOn uplink the SACCH carriers signal strength and quality informationSACCH is allocated every 13th frame of a traffic channel.Fast associated control channel (FACCH)1. Carries urgent messages to the mobile, for example handover.2. FACCH gains access by stealing frames from TCH (e.g. data transmission slot are stolen).
27 Time Slot BurstsTime slot data bursts take on one of the 5 formats according to the logical channel.A normal burst consists of 148 bitsGuard time of 8.25 bits to avoid frame overlap.Two batched of 57 bits are information bits26 training bits for equalization.Two stealing bits for FACCH
29 Mobile-Assisted handover Four purposes for handoverRescue low-quality channelRecovering cochannel interferenceTraffic balancing among cells (avoid congestion or load balancing) – directed handover.Recovering in the event of failure of a control channelThree cases of handover,From one radio channel to another of the same BSC.Between channel of different BSCs under the control of the same MSC.Between different MSCs in the same licensed operator.Between different licensed operators there are no procedure.
30 Two modes of handoverSynchronous: the old and new cells are synchronized so that their TDMA timeslots start at exactly the same time.Asynchronous: this may lead to a longer interruption of communication during handover since MS has to re-initialize timing advance at the new cell.
31 Speech codingThe GSM speech coder is based on the Residually Excited Linear Predictor (RELP)Enhanced by a long term predictor (LTP)The coder provides 260 speech codec bits for each 20ms, ie. The speech codec bit rate is 13 kbps.40% average voice activity exploited by a discontinuous transmission mode. A voice activity detector (VAD) is used in the speech coder – off the transmitter for power saving.Half rate codec works at 6.5 kbps.
33 Channel coding – data channels Full rate 22.8kbps :The output bits of the speech coder are ordered into groups for error protection, based upon their significance in contributing to speech quality. Out of the total 260 bits in a frame,The most important 50 bits, called type Ia bits, have 3 parity check (CRC) bits added to them.The next 132 bits along with the first 53 are reordered and appended by 4 trailing zero bits, and then encoded for error protection using a rate ½ convolution encoder with constraint length K=5.The least important 78 bits do not have any error protection.For TCH/F.9.6,
34 Modulation & Interleaving 0.3 GMSK.The channel data rate of GSM is kbpsInterleavingTo minimize the effect of sudden fades on the received data, the total of 456 encoded bits within each 20 ms speech frame or control message frame are broken into eight 57 bit sub-blocks. These 8 sub-blocks which make up a single speech frame are spread over eight consecutive TCH time slots.If a burst is lost due to interference or fading, interleaved data will help to spread the effect over a few error-correction-frames. Hopefully channel coding ensures that enough bits will still be received correctly.
35 Frequency hoppingUnder normal conditions, each data burst belonging to a particular physical channel is transmitted using the same carrier frequency.If users in a particular cell have severe multipath problems, the cell may be defined as a hopping cell by the network operator.Frequency hopping is carried out on a frame-by-frame basis, thus hopping occurs at a maximum rate of hops per second (1/ – frame rate). As many as 64 different channels may be used before a hopping sequence is repeated.
36 Others – Apparent bandwidth efficiency GSM bit rate = kbps, bandwidth = 200kHzBandwidth efficiency = bs/Hz– The speech codec rate for each time slot = 456b/20ms (=22.8kbps).– Each voice channel actually allocated for /8 =33.854kbps.– Number of bits/slot = x4.615 = bits ( guard time)– For each TDMA slot in each frame, 114 bits are transmitted, and only 24 data frames per 26 frames are transmitting, therefore the vocoder output rate = 114/ x 24/26 = 22.8kbps– However, of the 114 data bits in a slot, only 65 are raw speech codec bitsRaw data rate = 22.8*65/114=13 kbps65 bits in 20ms = 13 kbps