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Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering EE18B

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Principle of Operation Alternating Voltage level conversion Ferromagnetic, laminated core Primary and Secondary Windings

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Principle of Operation Alternating Voltage sets up varying flux in core Varying flux links with windings on secondary side Flux linkage results in voltage source

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Non-Ideal Transformer Hysteresis & Eddy Current Losses in Transformer Core Resistive Losses in primary and secondary windings Leakage losses in windings

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Equivalent Circuit

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Points to Remember when going to the HV side, impedances go up when going to the LV side impedances go down any side can be treated as the primary, all the must be done is that the turns ratio should be adjusted to suit

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Open Circuit Test Measure V oc, I oc and P oc Calculate Z oc and oc I o = I oc cos oc I m = I oc sin oc R o = V oc / I o X m = V oc / I m P oc = V oc x I oc x cos oc

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Open Circuit Test

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Short Circuit Test Measure V sc, I sc and P sc Calculate Z sc and sc R s = Z sc cos sc X s = Z sc sin sc P sc = V sc x I sc x cos sc

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Short Circuit Test

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Summary p.f @ L

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a = ( N1 / N2 ) ‘ Coil Turns Ratio’ E1 = N1 ‘ Voltage Turn Ratio ‘ E2 N2 I1 = N2 ‘ Ampere Turn Ratio’ I2 N1 Turns Ratio

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1.Power out = V 2 I 2 cos L 2.I IN = I NL + I 1 3.I NL = I O – jI m { PHASE DIFFERENCE 90 DEG } { -j = Lagging p.f. } 4. N 1 I 1 - N 2 I 2 = 0 Summary

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6. ‘Equivalent Losses’ ‘Stored Energy’ 7. V 2 = E 2 8. E 2 = E 1 [ N2 ] [ N1 ]

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Summary 9. E 1 = V 1 – I 1 { R S + jX S } 10. = Output Power x 100 Input Power = Input Power – losses x 100 Input Power = Output Power x 100 Output Power + Losses

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Summary 11. = V 2 I 2 cos L x 100 V 2 I 2 cos L + [I O ] 2 R O + [I 1 ] 2 R S = Efficiency (%) 12. Regulation (%) = (V NL2 – V FL2 ) X 100 V FL2

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