Presentation on theme: "LISTENING AND SPEAKING Yuleyzi Márquez Junio, 05 de 2012"— Presentation transcript:
1 LISTENING AND SPEAKING Yuleyzi Márquez Junio, 05 de 2012 UNIVERSIDAD SIMON BOLIVAR DECANATO DE ESTUDIOS DE POSTGRADO COORDINACION DE POSTGRADO EN LINGÜÍSTICA APLICADALISTENING AND SPEAKINGYuleyzi MárquezJunio, 05 de 2012
2 TECNOLOGY IN THE CLASSROOM AND THE TEACHING OF LANGUAGE SKILLS LISTENING AND SPEAKING***
3 TECHNOLOGY IN THE CLASSROOM HISTORY-1950’s 1960’s Listening laboratory-1980’s Personal computer- Computer-assisted language learning (CALL)
4 TECNOLOGICAL AIDS -Commercially produced CDs -Commercially Produced videos-Self-made CDs-Self-made videos-Overhead projection, among others.
5 What are some of the benefits of the use of the so called CALL?
6 -Multimodal practice with feedback ***-Multimodal practice with feedback-Individualization in a large class-Pair and small group work on projects, either collaborative or competitively-The fun factor-Variety in the resources available and learning styles used-Exploratory learning with large amounts of language data-Real-life skill- building in computer use (Brown, D 2001)
7 COMMUNICATIVE COMPETENCE “Given that communicative competence is the goal of a language classroom, instruction needs to point toward all its components: organizational, pragmatics, strategy and psychomotor .Communicative goals are best achieve by giving due attention to language use and not just usage, to fluency and not to accuracy, to authentic language and context , and to student’s eventual need to apply classroom learning to previously unrehearsed contexts in the real world” ( Brown, D p. 68 )
8 LISTENING SKILL“ The importance of listening language learning can hardly be overestimated. Through reception, we internalize linguistic information without with we could not produce language” ( Brown, D p. 247)
9 Listening Comprehension in Pedagogical Research LISTENING SKILLListening Comprehension in Pedagogical Research-Total Physical Response (TPR). James Asher-Natural Approach. Stephen KrashenPedagogical research was focused on the role of listening comprehension in the late 1970’s and showed evidence of the importance of input (comprehensible input), and intake.
10 Teaching Comprehension in Pedagogical Research LISTENING SKILLTeaching Comprehension in Pedagogical ResearchLater pedagogical research showed the effect of contextual characteristics such as text, interlocutor, task, listener ,and process characteristics.
11 Listening as an Interactive Process LISTENING SKILLListening as an Interactive ProcessListening comprehension is an interactive process. According to Clark and Richards it contains eight processes:- The hearer processes raw speech.- The hearer determines type of speech.- The hearer infers speaker’s objectives- The hearer recalls background information
12 Listening as an Interactive Process LISTENING SKILLListening as an Interactive Process- The hearer assigns literal meanings to utterances- The hearer assigns and intended meaning to the utterances he/she hears.- Then, he/she determines whether the information should be retained in short or long term memory.- Finally, The hearer deletes the form in which the message was received and retains what is important.
13 LISTENING SKILL Types of Spoken Language -Monologue (planned, unplanned )Difficult easyto understand
14 LISTENING SKILL Types of Spoken Language -Dialogue ( interpersonal, transactional)Promotes social relationship To convey factualinformation
15 What makes listening difficult? LISTENING SKILLWhat makes listening difficult?There are some factors of spoken language which second language learners need to pay special attention to because they influence the processing of speech which is crucial for having comprehension Such factors are: clustering, redundancy, reduced forms, performance variables, colloquial language, rate of delivery, stress rhythm and intonation.
16 LISTENING SKILL Type of Listening Performance in the Classroom The knowledge of different types of listening performance is crucial for teachers , that is what students do in a listening technique ,in order to select what to use .These are:-Reactive-Intensive-Responsive-Selective-Extensive-Interactive
17 Type of Listening Performance LISTENING SKILLType of Listening PerformanceReactive: Technique in which a learner listens to the surface structure of an utterance and repeats it back to the teacher.Intensive: Technique that focus on components of discourse (phonemes, words, discourse, markers, etc).Here students just single out elements of spoken language ( bottom-up skills are included here)
18 Type of Listening Performance LISTENING SKILLType of Listening PerformanceResponsive: Short stretches of teacher languagedesigned to elicit answers.(questions, commands,etc)Selective: The student scans material for certain information . The goal is to find important information in a field of distracting informationExtensive: The aim in this case is a top-down global understanding of spoken language, and to get a comprehensive message or purpose
19 Type of Listening Performance LISTENING SKILLType of Listening PerformanceInteractive: This listening performance can include all five of the above as learners participate in conversations, role play; among others. Listening should be integrated with speaking and other skills
20 Principles for Designing Listening Skills - Do not overlook those techniques directly related to the development of listening skill.- Use techniques that are motivated to our students.-Use authentic language and contexts.-Consider the form of listener’s responses since comprehension is not externally observable.-Encourage the development of listening strategies in order to help students learn by their own.-Include both bottom-up and top-down listening techniques-Consider the level of proficiency.
21 SPEAKING SKILLSome factors studied previously such as type of spoken language , factors that make listening difficult and listening microskills are closely related to the oral code and consequently to the teaching of speaking too.The interaction of listening and speaking performance apply strongly to conversation
22 SPEAKING SKILL Conversational Discourse: According to Richards : Oral Communication Skills in Pedagogical ResearchConversational Discourse:According to Richards :“…The goals and the techniques for teaching conversation are extremely diverse, depending on the student, teacher, and overall context of the class” ( Brown, D p.268)Research on the area has provided some parameters for the design of objectives and techniques
23 SPEAKING SKILL Teaching Pronunciation: Oral Communication Skills in Pedagogical ResearchTeaching Pronunciation:Most of people are not going to acquire foreign- like accent ,but emphasis on pronunciation is necessaryAccuracy and fluencyIn the mid to late 1970’s some teachers turn away from accuracy (clear, articulated, grammatically and phonologically correct) in favor to natural language (flowing, natural)activities in the classroom ,but recent research has highlighted the importance of both .
24 The Interaction Effect : SPEAKING SKILLOral Communication Skills in Pedagogical Research:Affective Factors:Because of the language ego ( you are what you speak) .Learners are reluctant to be judged by hearers and sometimes avoid speaking. Teachers should encourage students to speak.The Interaction Effect :The biggest difficulty of students is the interactive nature of communication). According to David Nunan:
25 SPEAKING SKILL Oral Communication Skills in Pedagogical Research “…what he calls interlocutor effect, or the difficulty of a speaking task as gauged by the skills of one’s interlocutor. In other words, one learner’s performance is always colored by that of the person( interlocutor) he or she is talking with.” ( Nunan in Brown, p.269)
26 What Makes Speaking Difficult? SPEAKING SKILLWhat Makes Speaking Difficult?The same factors of spoken language that make listening difficult should be considered here , but this time taking into account that the producer is the student. Those factors are: clustering, redundancy, reduced forms, performances variables, colloquial language, rate of delivery, stress, rhythm and intonation and interaction.
27 Types of Classroom Speaking Performance SPEAKING SKILLTypes of Classroom Speaking PerformanceImitative:Learners can practice intonation contour or try to identify a vowel sound. The purpose here is to focus on some particular element of language. Meaning is not important here.IntensiveAny speaking performance that is designed to practice some phonological or grammatical aspect of language.
28 Types of Classroom Speaking Performance Transactional (dialogue): SPEAKING SKILLTypes of Classroom Speaking PerformanceResponsive:Students speech consist on replies to teacher or student-initiated questions. This answers are enough and do not require a dialogue.Transactional (dialogue):The purpose is to exchange specific information. Dialogues are predominant here and can be part of a group work activity.
29 Types of Classroom Speaking Performance Interpersonal (dialogue): SPEAKING SKILLTypes of Classroom Speaking PerformanceInterpersonal (dialogue):This kind of dialogue has the purpose of maintaining social relationship. It can involve some of the following factors: a casual register, colloquial language, emotionally charged language, slang, ellipsis, sarcasm, a covert agenda
30 Types of Classroom Speaking Performance Extensive (monologue): SPEAKING SKILLTypes of Classroom Speaking PerformanceExtensive (monologue):At intermediate to advanced levels students give extended monologues in the form of reports, summaries or speeches. These monologues can be planned or un planned, but most of the time are formal.
31 SPEAKING SKILL Teaching Conversation Two approaches are involved in current teaching conversation : An indirect and a direct approachIndirect Approach to Teaching ConversationStudents acquire conversational competence by participating in meaningful tasks .Direct Approach to Teaching ConversationA direct approach calls students attention to conversational rules, conventions and strategies
32 Teaching Pronunciation SPEAKING SKILLTeaching PronunciationSince audiolingualism, pronunciation component has been a key factor, but in different ways. Current approaches have highlighted its importance and its features “… stress, rhythm and intonation are given high priority. Instead of teaching only the role of articulation within words, or at best, phrases, we teach its role in a whole stream of discourse( Brown, p.283)The way in which sounds are organized is more important because that affects understanding.
33 Teaching Pronunciation Factors that affect pronunciation SPEAKING SKILLTeaching PronunciationFactors that affect pronunciationThe following factors are related to learnersNative Language:Because of the lack of a sound in the mother tongue language system ,pronunciation of a sound in L2 can be troublesome.
34 Teaching Pronunciation Factors that affect pronunciation SPEAKING SKILLTeaching PronunciationFactors that affect pronunciationAge:According to The Critical Period Hypothesis there is a biological timetable and beyond the age of puberty is more difficult to acquire a foreign-like accent. Children under this age are likely to acquire a foreign like accent if they are expose to the language in authentic contexts.
35 Teaching Pronunciation Factors that affect pronunciation SPEAKING SKILLTeaching PronunciationFactors that affect pronunciationExposure:Exposure has to do not only with living in a foreign country, but with taking advantage of living with people. The quality and intensity of exposure is more important than the length of time .
36 SPEAKING SKILL Teaching Pronunciation Factors that affect pronunciationInnate Phonetic Ability :Some people are more talented than others or have a good “ear” for language.Identity and Language Ego:One’s attitude towards target language speakers . Students need not to be afraid of the second identity that may be emerging within them.
37 Teaching Pronunciation Factors that affect pronunciation SPEAKING SKILLTeaching PronunciationFactors that affect pronunciationMotivation and Concern for Good PronunciationMotivation is a crucial factor in learning a language . We teachers, can help students to perceive or develop that motivation how clarity of speech is very significant in shaping their self- image and reaching some other goals.
38 **CONCLUSIONThere are several factors involved in the teaching and learning of listening and speaking that we as teachers should take into consideration at the time of planning our classes.Technology is a topic in vogue and a wonderful tool which can help us to mediate the process of learning of our students. There are not specific recipes for incorporating technology in the classroom. There is a range of t tools that varies from PC to s that we can use taking into account students needs and goals of the class.
39 **REFERENCESBrown, D. (2001). Teaching by Principles An Interactive Approach to Language Pedagogy United States of America. Pearson Education.