POLITICAL OPPORTUNITY STRUCTURE Individual rights Cultural group rights General political opportunity structure Specific political opportunity structure
INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS Access to short-term permits Access to long-term permits Access to family reunion Access to nationality Labor market access Welfare state access Anti-discrimination rights Political rights
CULTURAL GROUP RIGHTS Cultural requirements to access the community Language programs Schooling Religion Media Labor market: group rights
GENERAL POLITICAL OPPORTUNITY STRUCTURE Configuration of powers Participatory mechanisms
SPECIFIC POLITICAL OPPORTUNITY STRUCTURE Degree of development of immigrants’ integration policy at the local level Political representation of immigrants Attitude of local powers towards minority/immigrants organizations Attitude of local powers towards organizations whose activity is specialized in/has an impact on immigration/integration issues Political audience of anti-immigrant and radical right parties
Some examples of the use of our indicators to ‘map’ the openness of POS in each city for different dimensions. Capacity to plot cities, but also distinguish between different migrant/ethnic groups within each city, whenever relevant. +1= most open, 0=neutral, -1=most closed
DISCURSIVE POS Goal: to measure POS that is not just based on institutional policies and practices, but also at the level of discourses and public representations. Methods: analysis of claims-making through newspaper reports. Results: only preliminary, but interesting contrasts between institutional & discursive POS. Interpretation also +1/-1.
DISCURSIVE POS BY CITY (preliminary results, pending several cities)