# Relative Clauses Defining and non-defining relative clauses.

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Relative Clauses Defining and non-defining relative clauses

that / which This is a machine. This machine makes edible forks.
The name of the machine is Let’s Eat. Ruff invented the machine. The name of the machine that/which Ruff invented is Let’s Eat. that / which makes edible forks = relative clause. that/which Ruff invented = relative clause.

who Ruff lives in London. Ruff makes silly machines. Ruff , who
makes silly machines, lives in London. Who makes silly machines = relative clause.

Underline the relative clauses.
1. Tim knows a lot of people who like apple pies. 2. Ruff knows somebody who invents machines. 3. This is a machine that makes your bed. 4. That is the shop which was robbed yesterday. 5. Ruff, who works for DDG, is my best friend.

Worksheet no. 1

She’s the student who’s working here for a month.
He’s the boss who I really admire. She’s the secretary who works for me. He’s the young man who started today. That’s the laptop which I use every day. He’s the engineer who fixes the computers. Those are the letters which I wrote this morning.

whom instead of who The man was away on holiday. I wanted to see
whom / who I wanted to see was away on holiday. whom / who I wanted to see = relative clause

whom (with preposition)
Jack has three brothers. All of them are married. Jack has three brothers, all of are married. whom of are married = relative clause. whom to whom = a quem with whom = com quem of whom = do qual

whose where when whose = cujo / cuja where = onde when = quando
Other relative pronouns: whose where when whose = cujo / cuja where = onde when = quando

whose There is the woman. The woman’s cat ran away. There is the woman
ran away = It tells you that somebody owns something.

where I recently went back to the town. I was born there.

when That’s the year. I will have my driving licence then.

3. Munich is the place _______________ the Olympic Games were held
Complete a relative pronouns - who, which, whose, where 1. Alison is the girl _______________ finished her physical exercises first. 2. Netball is one of the sports _______________ girls play in British schools. 3. Munich is the place _______________ the Olympic Games were held in 1972. 4. Nadia Comaneci is the girl _______________ won 3 gold medals, a silver and a bronze in the Montreal Olympics. 5. Peter Chilvers is the man _______________ invention made windsurfing popular. 6. Hawaii is the place _______________ surfing is the best, as the waves are the highest. 7. The dentist is the person _______________ you should visit if you have a toothache. 8. Peter O’Connor is the gymnastics teacher _______________ programme is on the radio everyday. 9. The part of your body _______________ you use to smell things is your nose. 10.Stress is the disease _______________ results can be heart attacks, mental and physical illnesses. who_which_whose_where.jcl

Relative clauses tell you more about nouns.
Without the relative clause you don’t know much about the subject of the sentence. He’s a man. (I don’t know much about the man.) He’s a man who writes funny books. (who writes funny books = relative clause. Now I know more about the man.) These relative clauses are called defining relative clause.

It gives you extra information about the noun in a sentence.
There’s another kind of relative clauses. It’s called a non-defining relative clause. It gives you extra information about the noun in a sentence. Your book is very funny. You know one thing about the book: It’s funny. Your book, which I read yesterday, is very funny. (which I read yesterday = relative clause. Now you know two things about the book: It’s funny. I read it yesterday.) You need to use commas (,) in these relative clauses.

Underline the relative clauses and decide whether the clause is defining or non-fining.
1. My teacher, who likes children, has written a lot of books. 2. The girl who was waiting was becoming impatient. 3. Mr Korky, who draws a lot of pictures, uses a lot of paint. 4. Her latest book, which is very popular, is about slavery. 5. The train which leaves ay 8.00 doesn’t stop at Bath.

Choose the most suitable word in each sentence.
Is it a defining or a non-defining relative clause? 1. My friend Jack, THAT / WHO / WHOSE parents live in Glasgow, invited me to spend Christmas in Scotland. 2. Here’s the computer program THAT / WHOM / WHOSE I told you about. 3. I don’t believe the story THAT / WHO / WHOM she told us. 4. Peter comes from Whitney, THAT / WHO / WHICH is near Oxford. 5. This is the gun with THAT / WHOM / WHICH the murder was committed. 6. Have you received the parcel WHOM / WHOSE / WHICH we sent you? 7. Is this the person WHO / WHICH / WHOSE you asked me about? 8. That’s the girl THAT / WHO / WHOSE brother sits next to me at school. 9. The meal, THAT / WHICH / WHOSE wasn’t very tasty, was quite expensive. 10. We didn’t enjoy the play THAT / WHO / WHOSE we went to see. defining_non_defining.htm