Presentation on theme: "Parametric Equations Here are some examples of trigonometric functions used in parametric equations."— Presentation transcript:
1 Parametric EquationsHere are some examples of trigonometric functions used in parametric equations.
2 INTRODUCTIONImagine that a particle moves along the curve C shown here.It is impossible to describe C by an equation of the form y = f(x).This is because C fails the Vertical Line Test.
3 INTRODUCTIONHowever, the x- and y-coordinates of the particle are functions of time.So, we can write x = f(t) and y = g(t).
4 INTRODUCTIONSuch a pair of equations is often a convenient way of describing a curve and gives rise to the following definition.
5 PARAMETRIC EQUATIONSSuppose x and y are both given as functions of a third variable t (called a parameter) by the equations x = f(t) and y = g(t)These are called parametric equations.
6 PARAMETRIC CURVEEach value of t determines a point (x, y), which we can plot in a coordinate plane.As t varies, the point (x, y) = (f(t), g(t)) varies and traces out a curve C.This is called a parametric curve.
7 PARAMETER tThe parameter t does not necessarily represent time.
8 PARAMETER tHowever, in many applications of parametric curves, t does denote time.Thus, we can interpret (x, y) = (f(t), g(t)) as the position of a particle at time t.
9 Graphing a Circle with Parametric Equations Example Graph x = 2 cos t and y = 2 sin t for 0 2. Findan equivalent equation using rectangular coordinates.Solution Let X1T = 2 cos (T) and Y1T = 2 sin (T), and graphthese parametric equations as shown.Technology Note Be sure the calculator is set in parametric mode.A square window is necessary for the curve to appear circular.
10 Graphing a Circle with Parametric Equations To verify that this is a circle, consider the following.The parametric equations are equivalent to x2 + y2 = 4,which is a circle with center (0, 0) and radius 2.x = 2 cos t, y = 2sin tcos2 t + sin2 t = 1
11 t 1 2 3 Graph the plane curve represented by the parametric equations The t values we pick must be greater than or equal to 0. Let's start with 0.t123We'll make a chart and choose some t values and find the corresponding x and y values.We see the "path" of the particle. The orientation is the direction it would be moving over time (shown by the arrows)
12 We could take these parametric equations and find an equivalent rectangular equation with substitution. This is called "eliminating the parameter."Solve for the parameter t in one of equations (whichever one is easier).Substitute for t in the other equation.22We recognize this as a parabola opening up. Since our domain for t started at 0, it is only the right half.
13 t Graph the plane curve represented by the parametric equations The t values we pick must be from 0 to 2 tMake the orientation arrows based where the curve was as t increased.You could fill in with more points to better see the curve.
14 Let's eliminate the parameter Let's eliminate the parameter. Based on our curve we'd expect to get the equation of an ellipse.2244When you want to eliminate the parameter and you have trig functions, it is not easy to solve for t. Instead you solve for cos t and sin t and substitute them in the Pythagorean Identity:Here is the rectangular version of our ellipse. You can see it matches!
23 Graphing an Ellipse with Parametric Equations Example Graph the plane curve defined by x = 2 sin t andy = 3 cos t for t in [0, 2].SolutionNow add both sides of the equation.
24 Applications of Parametric Equations Parametric equations are used frequently in computer graphics to design a variety of figures and letters.Example Graph a “smiley” face using parametricequations.SolutionHead Use the circle centeredat the origin. If the radius is 2,then let x = 2 cos t and y = 2 sin tfor 0 t 2.
25 Applications of Parametric Equations Eyes Use two small circles. The eye in the first quadrantcan be modeled by x = cos t and y = sin t. Thisrepresents a circle centered at (1, 1) with radius .3. The eye inquadrant II can be modeled by x = – cos t and y = sin tfor 0 t 2, which is a circle centered at (–1, 1) with radius 0.3.Mouth Use the lower half of a circle. Try x = .5 cos ½t andy = –.5 –.5 sin ½t. This is a semicircle centered at (0, –.5) withradius .5. Since t is in [0, 2], the term ½t ensures that only half thecircle will be drawn.
26 Example Graph the plane curve defined by x = 2cos t + 2 cos (4t) y = sin t + sin(4t) and for t in [0, 5].
27 Example Graph the plane curve defined by x = t - 2sin t andy = 2 - 2cos t for t in [0, 10].
28 Simulating Motion with Parametric Equations If a ball is thrown with a velocity v feet per second at an angle with the horizontal, its flight can be modeled by the parametric equationswhere t is in seconds and h is the ball’s initial height above the ground. The term –16t2 occurs because gravity pulls the ball downward.Figure 80 pg
29 Simulating Motion with Parametric Equations Example Three golf balls are hit simultaneously into the air at132 feet per second making angles of 30º, 50º, and 70º with thehorizontal.Assuming the ground is level, determine graphically which ball travels the farthest. Estimate this distance.Which ball reaches the greatest height? Estimate this height.Solution(a) The three sets of parametric equations with h = 0 areas follows.X1T = 132 cos (30º) T, Y1T = 132 sin (30º) T – 16T2X2T = 132 cos (50º) T, Y2T = 132 sin (50º) T – 16T2X3T = 132 cos (70º) T, Y3T = 132 sin (70º) T – 16T2
30 Simulating Motion with Parametric Equations With 0 t 9, a graphing calculator in simultaneous mode showsall three balls in flight at the same time.The ball hit at 50º goes the farthest at an approximate distance of540 feet.The ball hit at 70º reaches the greatest height of about 240 feet.
31 Examining Parametric Equations of Flight Example For each problems, use your calculator to graph two parametric equations for a projectile fired at the given angle at the given initial speed at ground level. Then estimate the max height and the range of the object.
32 If an object is dropped, thrown, launched etc If an object is dropped, thrown, launched etc. at a certain angle and has gravity acting upon it, the equations for its position at time t can be written as:horizontal positioninitial velocityangle measured from horizontalgravitational constant which is 9.8 m/s2timevertical positioninitial height
33 How long is the ball in the air? Adam throws a tennis ball off a cliff, 300 metres high with an initial speed of 40 metres per second at an angle of 45° to the horizontal. Find the parametric equations that describe the position of the ball at time t.How long is the ball in the air?When the ball hits the ground, the vertical position y will be 0.use the quadratic formulaThe negative time value doesn't make sense so we throw it out.
34 When is the ball at its maximum height? Adam throws a tennis ball off a cliff, 300 metres high with an initial speed of 40 metres per second at an angle of 45° to the horizontal. Find the parametric equations that describe the position of the ball at time t.When is the ball at its maximum height?The motion is parabolic (opening down) so maximum will be at the turning point.What is the maximum height?
35 Determine the horizontal distance the ball traveled. Adam throws a tennis ball off a cliff, 300 meters high with an initial speed of 40 meters per second at an angle of 45° to the horizontal. Find the parametric equations that describe the position of the ball at time t.Determine the horizontal distance the ball traveled.Use time in air from first part of problem.
36 A baseball player is at bat and makes contact with the ball at a height of 3 ft. The ball leaves the bat at 110 miles per hour towards the center field fence, 425 feet away which is 12 feet high. If the ball leaves the bat at the following angles of elevation, determine whether or not the ball will be a home run.