Presentation on theme: "BY: SARAH DANIELS Chapter 11 Understanding Students with Autism."— Presentation transcript:
BY: SARAH DANIELS Chapter 11 Understanding Students with Autism
What is Autism? Autism is a developmental disability that affects the communication and social skills
AUTISM DISORDER RETT’S DISORDER CHILDHOOD DISINTEGRATIVE DISORDER ASPERGER’S DISORDER PERVASIVE DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDER NOT OTHERWISE SPECIFIED Autism is a form of a broader group of disorders know as pervasive developmental disorders. The term “Autism spectrum disorder” is used to refer to one or all of the disorders.
Historical information Autism was first diagnosed and described in early 1940’s 1970’s researchers established that autism is caused by the brain or biochemical dysfunction The cause of Autism is still unknown Siblings of a child with autism are 10 times more likely to have autism Researchers are investigating brain structure and function in individuals with Autism
Characteristics of Autism 1. Atypical language development 2. Atypical social development 3. Repetitive behavior 4. Problem behavior 5. Sensory and movement disorders 6. Differences in intellectual functioning
Atypical Language Development Language abilities range from non-verbal communication to communication difficulties Focus attention on one topic only Using limited gestures to supplement verbal skills Reversing pronouns (ex: “You want have a snack now”) Not maintaining eye contact Repeating or echoing other people’s language (echolalia) Experiencing difficulty with receptive and expressive language http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OKQdMH7Wiok
Atypical Social Development Delays in social interactions and social skills. American Psychiatric Association has 4 criteria for diagnosing atypical social development 1. Impaired use of nonverbal behavior 2. Lack of peer relationships 3. Failure to spontaneously share enjoyment, interests, and achievements with others 4. Lack of reciprocity
Repetitive Behavior Individuals who have Autism often repeat movements and verbalizations. Repetitive behaviors can include things such as… Hand flapping Turning lights on and off Insisting on things being the same
Sensory and Movement Disorders Sensory sensitivities can be understated however most are over-sensitive ex: taste/smell, tactile sensitivity, visual/auditory sensitivities Movement Disorders Examples: abnormal posture, unnatural movement of the face, head, trunk, limbs and eyes
Problem Behaviors Self-injurious behaviors: Head banging Biting Scratching Aggression: Towards others “Problem behaviors” are a way for the individual to communicate to others and serve a function. Get something Avoid or escape something Sensory stimulation
Differences in Intellectual Functioning Autism occurs in children with all levels of intelligence, from gifted to those classified as having mental retardation Individuals with Asperger’s Syndrome typically have higher intellectual functioning than individuals with other types of Autism Savant Syndrome- extraordinary talents in areas such as calendar calculations, musical abilities, mathematical skills, memorization, and mechanical abilities.
Evaluating Students with Autism Initial diagnosis is typically done in early childhood years Diagnosis tools: Autism Diagnostic Interview Physician or psychologist evaluation according to the DSM Functional Behavioral Assessment (FBA) Identifies relationship between behaviors and triggers
IDENTIFY DIFFERENT AREAS THAT MAY BE VERY LOUD AND ADDRESS THOSE AREAS TO MEET THE STUDENT’S NEEDS MODIFY THE CLASSROOM SO THE STUDENT CAN SEE EASIER AND THE ACOUSTICS ARE BETTER IN THE CLASS HAVE VISUALS SO THE STUDENT CAN STAY ON TASK AND FOLLOW THE SCHEDULE ASSESS WHAT THE STUDENT NEEDS TO BE ABLE TO COMPLETE ASSIGNMENTS. FOCUS ON THE STUDENT’S STRENGTHS Some students who have aspergers have very good memories which can be used as a basis for curriculum and adaptations. Little changes can make BIG differences!
KEYWORD STRATEGIES- TEACH STUDENTS TO LINK A KEYWORD TO A NEW WORD OR CONCEPT TO HELP THEM REMEMBER THE NEW MATERIAL. Example: To remember the bones in the ears- malleus sounds like mallets- picture someone hitting a bell to make a sound PEGWORD STRATEGY- HELPS STUDENTS REMEMBER NUMBERED OR ORDERED INFORMATION BY LINKING WORDS THAT RHYME WITH NUMBERS Example: “bun” – one; “shoe”- two LETTER STRATEGIES- USES ACRONYMS OR A STRING OF LETTERS TO HELP STUDENTS REMEMBER A LIST OF WORDS OR CONCEPTS Example: IDEA stands for Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Look at curriculum modifications that can help the student. Mnemonic- memory strategies
Work with the student on their social skills. Problems with language development and social development can result in problems in many areas but specifically when it comes to building relationships and making friends. In a study mentioned in the text, the study found that only 8% of the individuals with autism in the study reported that they had at least 1 friend.
Ways you can help promote friendship. Include students with autism in general education classrooms, extracurricular and nonacademic activities such as clubs, plays, sporting events, etc. Peer buddy program (chapter 10) links same-age peers with and without intellectual disabilities in activities. Educate the student on the goals of inclusion and find the supports that the student needs to be successful. Identify the interests that the student has and connect that student to others that share those interests.
Include friendship goals in the student’s IEP Trustworthiness and loyalty: teach the student how important it is to be a loyal friend by keeping secrets and promises and stand up for each other. Conflict Resolution: Teach the student how to resolve conflicts between and among friends. General Friendship Skills: Teach the student how to act around their friends. Example- take turns speaking, ask questions how they are doing, about their interests. Positive Interaction Style: Teach the student to be an active listener, give feedback, and respond to the needs of others. Taking the Perspective of Others: Teach the student to consider others’ needs, feeling, and interests of others.
SOCIAL STORIES TYPICALLY CONSIST OF FOUR DIFFERENT TYPES OF SENTENCES 1. Descriptive sentences define where a situation occurs, who is involved, what they are doing and why 2. Perspective sentences describe a person’s internal physical state or desire. They can also describe another person’s feelings, beliefs, and motivations. 3. Directive sentences define what is expected as a response to a cue or in a particular situation. 4. Control sentences identify strategies students may use to recall the information in a social story, reassure themselves, or define their responses. Social Stories Social stories are written by educators, parents, or students and describe social situations, social cues, and appropriate responses to those cues. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w_qmQuE4YWU
USED TO IDENTIFY AND HELP REDUCE PROBLEM BEHAVIORS OR INCREASE POSITIVE BEHAVIORS. DISCRETE TRIAL TEACHING USES THREE ELEMENTS 1. Discriminative stimulus- a specific event or environmental condition that elicits the response you want your student to give. The stimulus is the instruction or command. 2. Response- The response is the behavior your student preforms when you present the discriminative stimulus. The response is the behavior you are trying to teach the child. 3. Reinforcing Stimulus- The reinforcing stimulus, or reinforce, is an event or action that follows your student’s response and increases the possibility that your student will exhibit that same response again. Applied behavior analysis (ABA)
A SYSTEMS-LEVEL AND EVIDENCE-BASED METHOD FOR IMPROVING VALUED SOCIAL AND LEARNING OUTCOMES FOR ALL STUDENTS, NOT JUST THOSE WITH AUTISM. POSITIVE BEHAVIOR SUPPORT SEEKS TO TAILOR STUDENTS’ ENVIRONMENT TO THEIR PREFERENCES, STRENGTHS, AND NEEDS. REARRANGES THE SCHOOL ENVIRONMENTS AND CHANGES SCHOOL SYSTEMS TO DISCOURAGE STUDENTS FROM ENGAGING IN PROBLEM BEHAVIOR. THREE COMPONENTS OF PROGRAM 1. Universal Support 2. Group Support 3. Individual Support Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support
Some things to remember when working with students who have autism… Consider the student’s sensory needs Sound, touch, lights Build on the student’s strengths Help them with their social skills Use visuals and use other methods of communication when needed. If the student is displaying “problem behavior” than look for reason and causes Each student with autism is different and may need different adaptations or accommodations to be successful.