Definition Autism Spectrum Disorders: –Disorders are characterized by varying degrees of impairment in: (1) Communication skills (2) Social interactions (3) Repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior.
Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (or atypical autism) Persons who display behaviors typical of autism but to a lesser degree and/or with an onset later than three years of age
Rett Syndrome Normal development for five months to four years, followed by regression and intellectual disabilities. This is the only ASD that is more common in females than males and it is very rare.
Childhood Disintegrative Disorder Normal development for at least 2 and up to 10 years, followed by significant loss of skills Much more prevalent in males.
Aspergers Similar to mild autism but without significant impairments in cognition and language.
Autism Definition from IDEA: A developmental disability affecting verbal and nonverbal communication and social interaction, generally evident before age 3, that affects a child’s performance. Other characteristics often associated with autism are engagement in repetitive activities and stereotyped movements, resistance to environmental change or change in daily routines, and unusual responses to sensory experiences. The term does not apply if a child’s educational performance is adversely affected primarily because the childe has serious emotional disturbance.
Focus on Autism Characteristics Prevalence Causes Facts Signs of Autism Simulations
Autism Characteristics Impaired social interaction –Picked up/cuddled –Smile/laugh –Objects vs. people Impaired communication –50% thought to be mute –Robotic, parroting or reverse pronouns Repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior –Twirling, flapping of hands, rocking –Restricted range of interest
Autism Characteristics Continued Impaired cognition –Remember location in space rather than concept comprehension ie. “shopping” –Autistic savant: splinter skills ie. Rain Man Abnormal Sensory Perceptions –Hyperresponsive or hyporresponsive –Synaesthesia: the stimulation of one sensory or cognitive system results in the stimulation of another
Prevalence Autism is the most prevalent of the ASD’s and the second most common is PDD-NOS which is a less severe form and/or later onset. Interactive Autism Network
Causes Neurological No single, known cause Genetic Problems –Depending on the gene, a child may be more susceptible to the disorder Can affect the way brain cells communicate Can affect the severity of the symptoms Environmental Problems –Causes many other health problems –Exploring whether or not trigger autism ie. air pollutants and viral infections
Facts Approximately 1 in 110 children are diagnosed with autism. Over the last 30 to 40 years there has been great increase in the number of diagnosed cases. Autism is the fastest-growing serious developmental disability in the U.S. Sometimes students can be identified as LD or DCD when if fact they have autism.
More Facts Autism is more prevalent in boys than girls –Approximately 3:1 or 4:1 Autism is more prevalent in siblings of those with ASD Autism is more prevalent in those with other developmental disorders such as Fragile X syndrome, Developmental Cognitive Delayed, or Tuberculosis.
Early Signs of Autism 6 months –No big smiles or warm, joyful expressions 9 months –No back and forth sharing of sounds, smiles, etc 12 months –No consistent response to his/her name –No babbling –No back and forth gestures, such as pointing showing, reaching, waving, or three-pronged gaze 16 months –No words 24 months –No two-word meaningful phrases (without imitation or repeating)
Narrator of Curious The narrator of the book is Christopher Boone, a 15 year-old boy with an undisclosed disorder. Although never stated, Christopher appears to be a highly functioning autistic person. Christopher also appears to have the qualities of a “savant.”
Asperger syndrome Christopher may have this form of autism because displays many of the characteristics: –He is advanced in areas of language and other intellectual abilities –He is physically clumsy and socially awkward
Resources Exceptional Learners by Daniel P. Hallahan, James M. Kauffman, Paige C. Pullen MN Dept. of Education http://education.state.mn.us/MDE/Learning_Supp ort/Special_Education/Categorical_Disability_Info rmation/Autism_Spectrum_Disorders/index.html http://education.state.mn.us/MDE/Learning_Supp ort/Special_Education/Categorical_Disability_Info rmation/Autism_Spectrum_Disorders/index.html How to create an inclusive classroom http://www.child-autism-parent-cafe.com/autism- students-in-inclusive-classrooms.html http://www.child-autism-parent-cafe.com/autism- students-in-inclusive-classrooms.html
Resources Good resource to help identify autism http://www.nichd.nih.gov/publications/pubs/uploa d/autism_overview_2005.pdf#page=3 http://www.nichd.nih.gov/publications/pubs/uploa d/autism_overview_2005.pdf#page=3 http://www.autismspeaks.org/docs/family_service s_docs/sk/Appendix.pdf#page=91http://www.autismspeaks.org/docs/family_service s_docs/sk/Appendix.pdf#page=91 Autism Speaks organization http://www.autismspeaks.org/whatisit/index.php http://www.autismspeaks.org/whatisit/index.php http://www.ehow.co.uk/list_7183564_autism- simulation-activities.htmlhttp://www.ehow.co.uk/list_7183564_autism- simulation-activities.html Promoting Social Interaction: 4 strategies http://www.teachervision.fen.com/autism/teaching -methods/8193.html?detoured=1 http://www.teachervision.fen.com/autism/teaching -methods/8193.html?detoured=1