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Autism Spectrum Disorders By Kirsten Moreland and Kelsey Burns.

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1 Autism Spectrum Disorders By Kirsten Moreland and Kelsey Burns

2 Introduction o What are the Autism Spectrum Disorders? o What are the diagnostic criteria? o What are the eligibility requirements for Special Education in Minnesota?

3 Autism Spectrum Disorders (Also known as pervasive developmental disorders) Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (or atypical autism) Rett Syndrome Childhood Disintegrative Disorder Asperger Syndrome Autism


5 Definition Autism Spectrum Disorders: –Disorders are characterized by varying degrees of impairment in: (1) Communication skills (2) Social interactions (3) Repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior.

6 Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (or atypical autism) Persons who display behaviors typical of autism but to a lesser degree and/or with an onset later than three years of age

7 Rett Syndrome Normal development for five months to four years, followed by regression and intellectual disabilities. This is the only ASD that is more common in females than males and it is very rare.

8 Childhood Disintegrative Disorder Normal development for at least 2 and up to 10 years, followed by significant loss of skills Much more prevalent in males.

9 Aspergers Similar to mild autism but without significant impairments in cognition and language.

10 Autism Definition from IDEA: A developmental disability affecting verbal and nonverbal communication and social interaction, generally evident before age 3, that affects a child’s performance. Other characteristics often associated with autism are engagement in repetitive activities and stereotyped movements, resistance to environmental change or change in daily routines, and unusual responses to sensory experiences. The term does not apply if a child’s educational performance is adversely affected primarily because the childe has serious emotional disturbance.

11 Focus on Autism Characteristics Prevalence Causes Facts Signs of Autism Simulations

12 Autism Characteristics Impaired social interaction –Picked up/cuddled –Smile/laugh –Objects vs. people Impaired communication –50% thought to be mute –Robotic, parroting or reverse pronouns Repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior –Twirling, flapping of hands, rocking –Restricted range of interest

13 Autism Characteristics Continued Impaired cognition –Remember location in space rather than concept comprehension ie. “shopping” –Autistic savant: splinter skills ie. Rain Man Abnormal Sensory Perceptions –Hyperresponsive or hyporresponsive –Synaesthesia: the stimulation of one sensory or cognitive system results in the stimulation of another

14 Prevalence Autism is the most prevalent of the ASD’s and the second most common is PDD-NOS which is a less severe form and/or later onset. Interactive Autism Network

15 Causes Neurological No single, known cause Genetic Problems –Depending on the gene, a child may be more susceptible to the disorder Can affect the way brain cells communicate Can affect the severity of the symptoms Environmental Problems –Causes many other health problems –Exploring whether or not trigger autism ie. air pollutants and viral infections

16 Facts Approximately 1 in 110 children are diagnosed with autism. Over the last 30 to 40 years there has been great increase in the number of diagnosed cases. Autism is the fastest-growing serious developmental disability in the U.S. Sometimes students can be identified as LD or DCD when if fact they have autism.

17 More Facts Autism is more prevalent in boys than girls –Approximately 3:1 or 4:1 Autism is more prevalent in siblings of those with ASD Autism is more prevalent in those with other developmental disorders such as Fragile X syndrome, Developmental Cognitive Delayed, or Tuberculosis.

18 Early Signs of Autism 6 months –No big smiles or warm, joyful expressions 9 months –No back and forth sharing of sounds, smiles, etc 12 months –No consistent response to his/her name –No babbling –No back and forth gestures, such as pointing showing, reaching, waving, or three-pronged gaze 16 months –No words 24 months –No two-word meaningful phrases (without imitation or repeating)

19 Narrator of Curious The narrator of the book is Christopher Boone, a 15 year-old boy with an undisclosed disorder. Although never stated, Christopher appears to be a highly functioning autistic person. Christopher also appears to have the qualities of a “savant.”

20 Asperger syndrome Christopher may have this form of autism because displays many of the characteristics: –He is advanced in areas of language and other intellectual abilities –He is physically clumsy and socially awkward

21 Resources 38N5_AutismSpectrumDisorders.pdf 38N5_AutismSpectrumDisorders.pdf ialEd/documents/Manual/000824.pdf ialEd/documents/Manual/000824.pdf 48/DSECTION=causes 48/DSECTION=causes ialEd/documents/Publication/017210.pdf ialEd/documents/Publication/017210.pdf /section5.html /section5.html

22 Resources Exceptional Learners by Daniel P. Hallahan, James M. Kauffman, Paige C. Pullen MN Dept. of Education ort/Special_Education/Categorical_Disability_Info rmation/Autism_Spectrum_Disorders/index.html ort/Special_Education/Categorical_Disability_Info rmation/Autism_Spectrum_Disorders/index.html How to create an inclusive classroom students-in-inclusive-classrooms.html students-in-inclusive-classrooms.html

23 Resources Good resource to help identify autism d/autism_overview_2005.pdf#page=3 d/autism_overview_2005.pdf#page=3 s_docs/sk/Appendix.pdf#page=91 s_docs/sk/Appendix.pdf#page=91 Autism Speaks organization simulation-activities.html simulation-activities.html Promoting Social Interaction: 4 strategies -methods/8193.html?detoured=1 -methods/8193.html?detoured=1

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