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Emergent Literacy (Marie Clay, 1966)

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1 Emergent Literacy (Marie Clay, 1966)
“Emergent literacy assumes that the child acquires some knowledge about language, reading, and writing before coming to school. Literacy development begins early in life and is ongoing,” (Morrow, 2009, p. 24). Alexandra H. Allman

2 Components of Emergent Literacy: Behaviors
Children: like to explore are inquisitive are problem solvers develop fine/gross motor skills exhibit listening behaviors Theories: Constructivist – the teacher is the facilitator and will guide them to the knowledge; students will learn through social and collaborative activities that allow them to explore. Motivational – engage students in activities that will make them think - motivate them to be inquisitive, to apply problem solving

3 Practices in the Classroom: Behavior
Blocks and Puzzles (exploring, problem solving, fine/gross motor skills) Read alouds: read stories to students out loud – students are able to “identify behaviors associated with effective listening” – social communication about the book afterwards helps promote language learning and development (Jalong, 2010, p. 6) Centers with concrete objects for students to explore; some examples are: a science center that has dinosaur bones for a dinosaur theme Math center has manipulatives for students to explore Writing and art centers with a variety of supplies Reading a variety of texts out loud: students can use their inquisitiveness to ask questions and be problem solvers by predicting solutions Challenge students – promotes motivation (Morrow, 2009)

4 Components of Emergent Literacy: Observations of World
Children: are assertive and egocentric are social develop sense of humor are aware of their culture developing conscience (what’s good versus bad) can persist longer at tasks and can plan and carry out tasks from one day to the next Theories: Schema (Cognitive) – Children come to school aware of culture and background experiences pertaining only to their families. They becoming aware of what is good versus bad based on experiences in their home or what they see on t.v. Constructivist – promote social behavior and work with students behaviors in zone of proximal development – some students will be more mature and ready for certain activities and learning situations than others.

5 Practices in the Classroom: Observations of the World
Centers – students can socially work in areas together that help promote literacy skills: some tasks can begin one day and students can continue the next day Jobs – assigning jobs to students to develop assertiveness in a positive way Culture – display students’ different cultures around classroom through pictures, books, and activities – allow students to be experts in their culture Have students role play – good behavior versus bad behavior Give students choices – gives them responsibility and control (Morrow, 2009)

6 Components of Early Literacy: Home/School Environment
Defined: What children are learning in the classroom should be reinforced at home. “Family members who care for children are children’s first teachers,” (Morrow, 2009, p. 379). Theory: Constructivist Students are learning naturally at home and should blend with the classroom (Baker, 1999) They may be learning socially with family and therefore should be learning socially with teachers and peers Teachers and parents should be guiding students toward learning using the zone of proximal development (Vygotsky)

7 Practices at Home and the Classroom
Read alouds – promotes language, writing, and reading - talk about book Visuals of students’ culture in the classroom (reinforce what is important at home) Environmental Print A newsletter communicating to parents what is happening in the classroom Echo reading – teacher or parent reads and students repeat back (Kuhn, 2003) Using songs, poems Writing lists – grocery list, list of students in classroom Trips around the community (NAEYC, 1998)

8 Components of Emergent Literacy: Cognitive Processes
The way one thinks Learning alphabetic principle, phonemic awareness, and phonics “Cognitive processes are intimately linked with one’s history as a sociocultural being, as well as with the immediate contextual variables of the situation in which the cognitive processing (such as reading) occurs… Context is an integral part of thinking.” (Teale, 2003, p. 27) Theories: Cognitive – using prior knowledge, schema Constructivist – developing cognitive skills at home (background/culture) and at school

9 Practices in the Classroom: Cognitive Processes
Scaffolding – whole group and guided reading Centers that build on background knowledge Integrate cultures – through pictures and literature and centers Zone of Proximal Theory – students should be working on this level; the level students can perform on with help from adult until independent Students read independently to practice new skills

10 Components of Emergent Literacy: Language Processes
Defined: Language is the understanding of the concept of a word Children will “construct – or reconstruct – language as they learn (Morrow, 2009) Theory: Cognitive – students’ language develops through activities Constructivist – acquiring language through active and social process Behaviorist – will learn through imitation

11 Practices in the Classroom: Language Processes
Buddy reading Sharing (show and tell) Teacher modeling Centers (i.e. house center) Shared reading Collaborative discussion (whole group or small group) Role playing

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