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2 ND QUARTER VOCABULARY LIST 8 TH GRADE.  Definition: Two-word naming system that gives all organisms their scientific name. #1-Binomial Nomenclature.

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Presentation on theme: "2 ND QUARTER VOCABULARY LIST 8 TH GRADE.  Definition: Two-word naming system that gives all organisms their scientific name. #1-Binomial Nomenclature."— Presentation transcript:


2  Definition: Two-word naming system that gives all organisms their scientific name. #1-Binomial Nomenclature

3  Definition: Smallest unit of an organism that can carry on life functions. #2-Cell

4  Definition: Protective outer covering of all cells that regulate the interaction between the cell and the environment. #3-Cell Membrane

5  Definition: States that all organisms are made up of one or more cells, the cell is the basic unit of a life, and all cells come from other cells. #4-Cell Theory

6  Definition: Rigid structure that encloses, supports and protects the cells of plants, algae, fungi, and most bacteria. #5-Cell Wall

7  Definition: Green, chlorophyll- containing plant-cell organelle that captures light energy which is used to make sugar. #6-Chloroplast

8  Definition: Gelatin like mixture inside the cell membrane that contains heredity material and is the location of most of a cell’s life processes. #7-Cytoplasm

9  Definition: Cytoplasmic organelle that moves materials around in a cell and is made up of a complex series of folded membranes; can be rough or smooth. #8-Endoplasmic Reticulum

10  Definition: First word of the two-word scientific name used to identify a group of similar species. #9-Genus

11  Definition: Organelles that sort and package cellular materials and transport them within the cell or out of the cell. #10-Golgi Body

12  Definition: Ability of an organism to keep proper internal conditions no matter what external stimuli are occurring. #11-Homeostatis

13  Definition: Living cell in which a virus can multiply or in which a virus can hide until activated by environmental stimuli. #12-Host Cell

14  Definition: First and largest category used to classify organisms. #13-Kingdom

15  Definition: Cell organelle where food is broken down and released as energy. #14-Mitochondrium

16  Definition: Organelle that controls all the activates of a cell and contains hereditary material made of DNA. #15-Nucleus

17  Definition: Structure, such as the heart, make up of different types of tissues that work together. #16-Organ

18  Definition: Structure in the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell that can act as a storage site, process energy, move materials, or manufacture substances. #17-Organelle

19  Definition: Any living thing. #18-Organism

20  Definition: A group of organs working together to perform a certain function. #19-Organ System

21  Definition: Evolutionary history of an organism; used to group organisms into six kingdoms. #20-Phlogeny

22  Definition: Small structure on which cells make their own proteins. #21-Ribosome

23  Definition: Group of similar cells that work together to do one job. #22-Tissue

24  Definition: A strand of hereditary material surrounded by a protein coating. #23-Virus

25 #24-ACTIVE TRANSPORT Definition: Energy-requiring process in which transport proteins bind with particles an move them through a cell membrane.

26 #25-DIFFUSION Definition: A type of passive transport in cells in which molecules move from areas where there are more of them to an area where there are fewer of them.

27 #26-ENDOCYTOSIS Definition: Process by which a cell takes in a substance by surrounding it with the cell membrane.

28 #27-ENZYME Definition: A type of protein that regulates chemical reactions in cells without being changed or used up itself.

29 #28-EQUILIBRIUM Definition: Occurs when molecules of one substance are spread evenly throughout another substance.

30 #29-EXOCYTOSIS Definition: Process by which vesicles release their contents outside the cell.

31 #30-FERMENTATION Definition: Process by which oxygen-lacking cells and some one-celled organisms release small amounts of energy from glucose molecules and produce wastes such as alcohol, carbon dioxide, and lactic acid.

32 #31-INORGANIC COMPOUND Definition: Compound that is made from elements other than carbon whose atoms usually can be arranged in only one structure. (Ex. H2O)

33 #32-METABOLISM Definition: The total of all chemical reactions in an organism.

34 #33-MIXTURE Definition: A combination of substance in which the individual substances do not change or combine chemically but instead retain their own individual properties.

35 #34-ORGANIC COMPOUND Definition: Compounds that always contain hydrogen and carbon. (Ex. Carbohydrates, protein).

36 #35-OSMOSIS Definition: A type of passive transport that occurs when water diffuses through a cell membrane.

37 #36-PASSIVE TRANSPORT Definition: Movement of substances through a cell membrane without the use of cellular energy; diffusion and osmosis.

38 #37-PHOTOSYNTHESIS Definition: Process by which plants and many others use light energy to produce a simple sugar from carbon dioxide and water.

39 #38-RESPIRATION Definition: Process by which producers and consumers release stored energy from food molecules.

40  Definition: a type of reproduction-fission and regeneration- in which a new organism is produced from one organism and has DNA identical to the parent organism.

41  Definition: Structure in the cell’s nucleus that contains hereditary material.

42  Definition: Cell whose similar chromosomes occur in pairs.

43  Definition: Deoxyribonucleic acid; the genetic material of all organisms.

44  Definition: Haploid sex cell formed in the female reproductive organs.

45  Definition: In sexual reproduction, the joining of a sperm and egg.

46  Definition: Section of DNA on a chromosome that contains instructions for making specific proteins.

47  Definition: Cells that have half the number of chromosomes as body cells.

48  Definition: Productive process that produces four haploid sex cells from one diploid cell and ensures offspring will have the same number of chromosomes as the parent organisms.

49  Definition: Cell process in which the nucleus divides to form two nuclei identical to each other and the original nucleus in a series of steps.

50  Definition: Any permanent change in a gene or chromosome of a cell.

51  Definition: Ribonucleic acid, a type of nucleic acid that carries codes for making proteins from the nucleus to the ribosomes.

52  Definition: A type of reproduction in which two sex cells joins to form a zygote, which will develop into a new organism with a unique identity.

53  Definition: Haploid sex cell formed in the male reproductive organs.

54  Definition: A new diploid cell formed when a sperm fertilizes an egg; will divide by mitosis and develop into a new organism.

55 #54-Allele  Definition: An alternate form that a gene may have for a single trait; can be dominant or recessive

56 #55-Dominant  Definition: Describes a trait that covers over, or dominates another form of that trait.

57 #56-Genetic Engineering  Definition: Biological and chemical methods to change the arrangement of a gene’s DNA to change how cells perform their normal functions.

58 #57-Genetics  Definition: The study of how traits are inherited through the actions of alleles.

59 #58-Genotype  Definition: The genetic makeup of an organism.

60 #59-Heredity  Definition: The passing of traits from parent to offspring.

61 #60- Heterozygous  Definition: Describes an organism with two different alleles for a trait.

62 #61-Homozyous  Definition: Describes an organism with two alleles that are the same for a trait.

63 #62-Hybrid  Definition: An offspring that was given different genetic information for a trait from each parent.

64 #63-Incomplete Dominance  Definition: Production of a phenotype that is intermediate between the two homozygous parents.

65 #64-Phenotype  Definition: Outward physical appearance and behavior of an organism as a result of its genotype

66 #65-Polygenic Inheritance  Definition: Occurs when a group of gene pairs acts together and produces a specific trait, such as eye color, skin color, or height.

67 #66-Punnett Square  Definition: A tool to predict the probability of certain traits in offspring that shows the different ways alleles can combine.

68 #67-Recessive  Definition: Describes a trait that is covered over, or dominated, by another form of that trait and seems to disappear.

69 #68-Sex-Linked Gene  Definition: An allele inherited on a sex chromosome and can cause human genetic disorders such as color blindness.

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