Presentation on theme: "2 ND QUARTER VOCABULARY LIST 8 TH GRADE. Definition: Two-word naming system that gives all organisms their scientific name. #1-Binomial Nomenclature."— Presentation transcript:
Definition: A group of organs working together to perform a certain function. #19-Organ System
Definition: Evolutionary history of an organism; used to group organisms into six kingdoms. #20-Phlogeny
Definition: Small structure on which cells make their own proteins. #21-Ribosome
Definition: Group of similar cells that work together to do one job. #22-Tissue
Definition: A strand of hereditary material surrounded by a protein coating. #23-Virus
#24-ACTIVE TRANSPORT Definition: Energy-requiring process in which transport proteins bind with particles an move them through a cell membrane.
#25-DIFFUSION Definition: A type of passive transport in cells in which molecules move from areas where there are more of them to an area where there are fewer of them.
#26-ENDOCYTOSIS Definition: Process by which a cell takes in a substance by surrounding it with the cell membrane.
#27-ENZYME Definition: A type of protein that regulates chemical reactions in cells without being changed or used up itself.
#28-EQUILIBRIUM Definition: Occurs when molecules of one substance are spread evenly throughout another substance.
#29-EXOCYTOSIS Definition: Process by which vesicles release their contents outside the cell.
#30-FERMENTATION Definition: Process by which oxygen-lacking cells and some one-celled organisms release small amounts of energy from glucose molecules and produce wastes such as alcohol, carbon dioxide, and lactic acid.
#31-INORGANIC COMPOUND Definition: Compound that is made from elements other than carbon whose atoms usually can be arranged in only one structure. (Ex. H2O)
#32-METABOLISM Definition: The total of all chemical reactions in an organism.
#33-MIXTURE Definition: A combination of substance in which the individual substances do not change or combine chemically but instead retain their own individual properties.
#34-ORGANIC COMPOUND Definition: Compounds that always contain hydrogen and carbon. (Ex. Carbohydrates, protein).
#35-OSMOSIS Definition: A type of passive transport that occurs when water diffuses through a cell membrane.
#36-PASSIVE TRANSPORT Definition: Movement of substances through a cell membrane without the use of cellular energy; diffusion and osmosis.
#37-PHOTOSYNTHESIS Definition: Process by which plants and many others use light energy to produce a simple sugar from carbon dioxide and water.
#38-RESPIRATION Definition: Process by which producers and consumers release stored energy from food molecules.
Definition: a type of reproduction-fission and regeneration- in which a new organism is produced from one organism and has DNA identical to the parent organism.
Definition: Structure in the cell’s nucleus that contains hereditary material.
Definition: Cell whose similar chromosomes occur in pairs.
Definition: Deoxyribonucleic acid; the genetic material of all organisms.
Definition: Haploid sex cell formed in the female reproductive organs.
Definition: In sexual reproduction, the joining of a sperm and egg.
Definition: Section of DNA on a chromosome that contains instructions for making specific proteins.
Definition: Cells that have half the number of chromosomes as body cells.
Definition: Productive process that produces four haploid sex cells from one diploid cell and ensures offspring will have the same number of chromosomes as the parent organisms.
Definition: Cell process in which the nucleus divides to form two nuclei identical to each other and the original nucleus in a series of steps.
Definition: Any permanent change in a gene or chromosome of a cell.
Definition: Ribonucleic acid, a type of nucleic acid that carries codes for making proteins from the nucleus to the ribosomes.
Definition: A type of reproduction in which two sex cells joins to form a zygote, which will develop into a new organism with a unique identity.
Definition: Haploid sex cell formed in the male reproductive organs.
Definition: A new diploid cell formed when a sperm fertilizes an egg; will divide by mitosis and develop into a new organism.
#54-Allele Definition: An alternate form that a gene may have for a single trait; can be dominant or recessive
#55-Dominant Definition: Describes a trait that covers over, or dominates another form of that trait.
#56-Genetic Engineering Definition: Biological and chemical methods to change the arrangement of a gene’s DNA to change how cells perform their normal functions.
#57-Genetics Definition: The study of how traits are inherited through the actions of alleles.
#58-Genotype Definition: The genetic makeup of an organism.
#59-Heredity Definition: The passing of traits from parent to offspring.
#60- Heterozygous Definition: Describes an organism with two different alleles for a trait.
#61-Homozyous Definition: Describes an organism with two alleles that are the same for a trait.
#62-Hybrid Definition: An offspring that was given different genetic information for a trait from each parent.
#63-Incomplete Dominance Definition: Production of a phenotype that is intermediate between the two homozygous parents.
#64-Phenotype Definition: Outward physical appearance and behavior of an organism as a result of its genotype
#65-Polygenic Inheritance Definition: Occurs when a group of gene pairs acts together and produces a specific trait, such as eye color, skin color, or height.
#66-Punnett Square Definition: A tool to predict the probability of certain traits in offspring that shows the different ways alleles can combine.
#67-Recessive Definition: Describes a trait that is covered over, or dominated, by another form of that trait and seems to disappear.
#68-Sex-Linked Gene Definition: An allele inherited on a sex chromosome and can cause human genetic disorders such as color blindness.