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Chapter 2 Cells.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 2 Cells."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 2 Cells

2 Section 1-Cell Structure
Common cell structures outer covering-_________________ internal gelatinlike cytoplasm hereditary material Comparing cells-

3 Section 1-Cell Structure
Two cell types Prokaryotic- __________membrane-bound internal structures Eukaryotic-___________membrane-bound internal structures

4 Section 1 Cell Organization
Composed of cellulose, a ___________ grows, changes shape, and protects the cells of plants, algae, fungi, and most bacteria. Cell __________-protective layer around all cells. allows food and oxygen into the cell and waste products out of the cell.

5 Section 1 Cell Organization
_____________-gelatinlike substance inside the cell membrane. ______________ scaffolding-like structure in cytoplasm which helps cell keep its shape. Eukaryotic cells have ___________ which help with cell like processes.

6 Section 1 Cell Organization
________________ contains instructions for everything a cell does; includes DNA CODE

7 Section 1 Cell Organization
Energy-processing organelles- help cells do their work Green organelles in plant cells contain ____________ to make food. Organelles which release energy from food are called _______________. green pigment=chlorophyll

8 Section 1 Cell Organization
Manufacturing organelles ______________ make proteins for cell activities. Some ribosomes attach to the rough part of the endoplasmic reticulum.

9 Section 1 Cell Organization
Transporting and storing organelles ______________move substances out of a cell or to other parts of a cell. ______________membrane-bound temporary storage space.

10 Section 1 Cell Organization
Recycling organelles _______________break down food molecules and cell waste.

11 Section 1 Cell to Organism
Cells work together to keep an organism alive. ________ group of similar cells working together on one job. Different types of tissues working together make up an _________. A group of organs working together on a particular function form a ___________. lining inside mouth kidney heart, blood, and vessels

12 Section 2-Viewing Cells
Magnifying Cells Early microscopes- lenses made images ________, but not always clear.

13 Section 2 Viewing Cells Modern microscopes- use lenses to bend light A simple microscope has one lens while a compound microscope has multiple lenses. A stereomicroscope, which has two eyepieces, creates a three-dimensional image. Powers of the eyepiece multiplied by objective lenses determine total magnification.

14 Electron microscopes- more powerful than other microscopes.
Section 2 Viewing Cells Electron microscopes- more powerful than other microscopes. Use a _____________ in a vacuum to bend electronic beams. Images must be photographed or produced electronically.

15 Development of the cell theory
Section 2 Viewing Cells Development of the cell theory The cell theory resulted from many scientists’ observations and conclusions. The basic unit of organization is the cell. All organisms are composed of one or more cells. New cells come from old cells through cell division.

16 Section 3-Viruses ___________ - a nonliving strand of hereditary material surrounded by a protein coating. Virus multiplication- viruses can make copies of themselves only inside a living ___________ cell. Active viruses make the host cell create new viruses, which kills the host cell

17 5 steps of active virus multiplication
Section 3 Viruses 5 steps of active virus multiplication virus attaches to host cell hereditary material enters host cell hereditary material causes the cell to make viral hereditary material new viruses form inside the host cell viruses are released as the host cell bursts

18 Section 3 Viruses __________viruses hide in the host cell without destroying it. virus hereditary material becomes part of the host cell hereditary material latent viruses can become active and then destroy the host cells.

19 Viruses effects on organisms
Section 3 Viruses Viruses effects on organisms most viruses infect only specific kinds of cells viruses are often carried to the host through the air the virus and host cell must fit together exactly to begin a viral infection. _____________attach to bacteria and inject their hereditary material.

20 Section 3 Viruses Fighting Viruses
__________- weakened virus particles which allow the host to fight some diseases

21 Treating viral diseases
Section 3 Viruses Treating viral diseases _______________ are not effective treatments for viral infections Infected cells sometimes produce ____________, which are proteins that can protect non-infected cells. Antiviral drugs often have adverse _____________, limiting their use. Public health measure can _________ or slow disease spread.

22 Section 3 Viruses Research
________________ uses viruses to replace defective cell hereditary material with normal cell hereditary material.

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