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CSE 1301 Lecture 6B More Repetition Figures from Lewis, “C# Software Solutions”, Addison Wesley Briana B. Morrison

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CSE 1301 6B-2 Overview Infinite Loops (again) Loop patterns (common tasks) Sentinel loops Nested Loops Examples

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CSE 1301 6B-3 What is the output? int count; for ( count = 0 ; count < 10 ; count++ ) { C.O.W(“*”) ; }

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CSE 1301 6B-4 OUTPUT ********** NOTE: the 10 asterisks are all on one line. Why?

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CSE 1301 6B-5 What’s the output from this loop? int count; for (count = 0; count < 10; count++) ; { C.O.W(“*”); }

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CSE 1301 6B-6 no output from the for loop! Why? the ; right after the ( ) means that the body statement is a null statement in general, the body of the for loop is whatever statement immediately follows the ( ) that statement can be a single statement, a block, or a null statement actually, the code outputs one * after the loop completes its counting to 10 OUTPUT

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CSE 1301 6B-7 int i = 0; while ( i < 10 ); { i++; } What does this loop do?

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CSE 1301 6B-8 INFINITE LOOP! The semicolon indicates an empty loop body; i++ is never executed because it is not part of the loop body, so the condition is always true. Avoid putting a semicolon after the condition of a while loop. Doing so creates an empty loop body and could result in an endless loop.

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CSE 1301 6B-9 The Endless Loop also called an infinite loop If the loop condition never evaluates to false, the loop body is executed continuously, without end If the loop body has no output, the endless loop makes the computer appear to hang. If the loop body produces output, the endless loop results in that output being repeatedly written without end. Aborting the program will interrupt the endless loop.

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CSE 1301 6B-10 Looping Techniques There are standard patterns and techniques for performing these common operations: –Accumulation –Counting Items –Finding an Average –Finding Maximum or Minimum Values

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CSE 1301 6B-11 Accumulation Approach: the running total –We start by initializing a total variable to 0. –Each time we read a value, we add it to the total. –When we have no more values to read, the total is complete. Note that this is the same pattern used by the grocery cashier.

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CSE 1301 6B-12 Accumulation Pseudocode set total to 0 // very important! read a number // priming read while ( number is not the sentinel value ) { add the number to total read the next number // update read } output the total

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CSE 1301 6B-13 Forgetting to initialize the total variable to 0 before beginning the loop will produce incorrect results.

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CSE 1301 6B-14 Counting Items Approach: the running count –We start by initializing a count variable to 0. –Each time we read a value, we check whether that value meets the criteria as something we want to count. If so, we increment the count variable by 1. –When we are finishing reading values, the count is complete.

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CSE 1301 6B-15 Counting Items Pseudocode set count to 0 // very important!! read input // priming read while ( input is not the sentinel value ) { if ( input is what we want to count ) add 1 to count read the next input // update read } output count

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CSE 1301 6B-16 Forgetting to initialize the count variable to 0 before beginning the loop will produce incorrect results.

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CSE 1301 6B-17 Calculating an Average Approach: combine accumulation and counting We start by initializing a total variable and count variable to 0. Each time we read an item, we add its value to the total variable and increment the count variable When we have no more items to read, we calculate the average by dividing the total by the count of items.

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CSE 1301 6B-18 Calculating an Average Pseudocode set total to 0 set count to 0 read a number while ( number is not the sentinel value ) { add the number to total add 1 to the count read the next number } set average to total / count average = (count==0)? 0 : (double) total / count; output the average

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CSE 1301 6B-19 Forgetting to check whether the denominator is 0 before performing division is a logic error.

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CSE 1301 6B-20 Correct Calculation Remember that if we declare total and count as integers, then average will be calculated using integer division, which truncates the remainder. To get a floating-point average, we need to type cast one of the variables (either total or count) to a double or a float to force the division to be performed as floating point. Example: double average = (double) ( total ) / count;

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CSE 1301 6B-21 Finding Maximum/Minimum Values Approach: the running maximum or minimum For the maximum (minimum is similar): –Read the first item and save its value as the current maximum –Each time we read a new value, we compare it to the current maximum. If the new value is greater than the current maximum, we replace the current maximum with the new value. –When we have no more items to read, the current maximum is the maximum for all values.

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CSE 1301 6B-22 Initializing a maximum or a minimum to an arbitrary value, such as 0 or 100, is a logic error and could result in incorrect results. For example, if we initialize the maximum to 0 and all the values read are less than 0, then we will incorrectly report 0 as the maximum. Similarly, if we initialize the minimum to 0 and all the values read are greater than 0, then we will incorrectly report 0 as the minimum.

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CSE 1301 6B-23 A Sentinel-controlled Loop requires a “priming read” (initialization)--this means you read one set of data before the while test if not sentinel value update is another read Sentinel values: –same data type as value read –must tell user the sentinel value –cannot be a valid data value

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CSE 1301 6B-24 Sentinel-Controlled while Loop initialize variables // priming read read the first data item while ( item is not the sentinel value ) { process the item // update read read the next data item } report the results

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CSE 1301 6B-25 Omitting the update read may result in an endless loop. Example: C.O.W( "Enter a value > " ); int input = scan.nextInt( ); while ( input != 10 ) // 10 is sentinel value { C.O.Wln( input ); } If the value entered for input is not 10, this is an endless loop because we never read a new value for input. Thus, the condition always evaluates to true.

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CSE 1301 6B-26 Omitting the priming read can lead to incorrect results. Example: int input, count = 0; while ( input != 10 ) // 10 is sentinel value { C.O.W( "Enter an integer > " ); input = scan.nextInt( ); count++; } C.O.Wln( "Count is " + count ); If the user enters the values 20 30 10, then the output will be "Count is 3", which is incorrect. We should not process the sentinel value.

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CSE 1301 6B-27 Do not check for the sentinel value inside a while loop. Let the while loop condition detect the sentinel value.

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CSE 1301 6B-28 Constructing Loop Conditions The loop body is executed as long as the loop condition evaluates to true So if we want to stop executing the loop when the sentinel value is read, the loop condition has to check that the value is NOT the sentinel Thus, the loop continuation condition is the inverse of the loop termination condition.

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CSE 1301 6B-29 Example: Find Sum of 5 Integers set total to 0 for i = 1 to 5 by 1 { read integer add integer to total } print the total

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CSE 1301 6B-30 Update Increment Can Be > 1 Print the even numbers from 0 to 20 set output to an empty String for i = 0 to 20 by 2 { append i and a space to output } print the output String

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CSE 1301 6B-31 for (init; expr1; expr2) statement; init statement can be null; expr2 is optional for ( ; inputval != 999; ) inputval = scan.nextInt(); expr1 optional, true assumed for ( ; ; ) C.O.Wln( “ Hi ” ); init can be a declaration for (int i = 0; i < 10; i++)//local scope For Loop Rules

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CSE 1301 6B-32 Loop Control Variable Scope When a loop control variable is declared inside the for loop header, it cannot be referenced after the loop for ( int i = 0; i < 3; i++ ) { C.O.Wln( i ); // ok } C.O.Wln( i ); // error: i undefined

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CSE 1301 6B-33 To Reference i After the Loop int i; // declare i before loop for ( i = 0; i < 3; i++ ) { C.O.Wln( i ); } C.O.Wln( i ); // ok

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CSE 1301 6B-34 Testing for Loops An important test for for loops is that the starting and ending values of the loop variable are set correctly. For example, to iterate 5 times, use this header: for ( int i = 0; i < 5; i++ ) or this header: for ( int i = 1; i <= 5; i++ )

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CSE 1301 6B-35 Nested Loops Loops can be nested inside other loops; that is, the body of one loop can contain another loop. A while loop can be nested inside another while loop or a for loop can be nested inside another for loop. A for loop can be nested inside a while loop and a while loop can be nested inside a for loop.

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CSE 1301 6B-36 initialize outer loop while ( outer loop condition ) {... initialize inner loop while ( inner loop condition ) { inner loop processing and update }... } Pattern of a Nested Loop

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CSE 1301 6B-37 To design a nested loop begin with outer loop when you get to where the inner loop appears, make it a separate module and come back to its design later

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CSE 1301 6B-38 // print heading C.O.Wln("i \t j"); for (int i = 0; i < 4; i++) { C.O.Wln( "Outer " + i); for (int j = 0; j < i; j++) C.O.Wln( " Inner \t" + j); } // end for - outer loop What’s the Output?

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CSE 1301 6B-39 Nested for Loop Execution Inner loop executes all its iterations for each single iteration of the outer loop Example: how can we print this? 1 1 2 1 2 3 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5

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CSE 1301 6B-40 Analysis The highest number we print is the same as the line number. for line = 1 to 5 by 1 { for number = 1 to line by 1 { print number and a space } print a new line }

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CSE 1301 6B-41 Now let’s work some more loop examples….

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CSE 1301 6B-42 Test Yourself How many times is the loop body below repeated? What is printed during each repetition of the loop body? x = 3; count = 0; while (count < 3) { x = x * x; C.O.Wln(x); count++; } //end while

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CSE 1301 6B-43 Test Yourself The following for loop is intended to display the values of i from 1 to 10. But the loop does not work correctly. Explain what the problem is and describe how to correct it. for (int i = 0; i < 10; i++) C.O.Wln( i++); Write a loop to add all the odd integers between 1 and n.

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CSE 1301 6B-44 Test Yourself What output values are displayed by the loop below for a data value of 5? C.O.Wln( “Enter an integer “); x = int.Parse(kb.ReadLine()); product = x; count = 0; while (count < 4) { C.O.Wln( product ); product = product * x; count++; } // end while C.O.Wln(“End of loop “ + count + “ “ + product);

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CSE 1301 6B-45 Test Yourself What is the least number of times that the body of a while loop may be executed? What is displayed by the segment: sum = 0; while (sum < 100) sum += 5; C.O.Wln( sum ); Rewrite the loop so that it prints all multiples of 5 from 0 through 100, inclusive. Your young cousin is learning the binary number system and has asked you to write a program that displays all powers of 2 that are less than a certain value (say, 10,000).

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CSE 1301 6B-46 Test Yourself Write a flag-controlled loop that continues to read pairs of integers until it reads a pair with the property that the first integer in the pair is evenly divisible by the second.

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CSE 1301 6B-47 What does the while statement below display? Rewrite it as a for statement. num = 10; while (num <= 100) { C.O.Wln( num ); num += 10; } // end while What does the for statement below display? Rewrite it as a do-while statement. for (n = 3; n > 0; n--) C.O.Wln( n + “ squared is “ + Math.pow (n, 2)); Test Yourself

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CSE 1301 6B-48 What is displayed by the following program segments? (Assume m is 3 and n is 5.) for (int i = 0; i 0; i--) { for (int j = n; j > 0; j--) C.O.W( “*”); C.O.Wln( ); } // end for i

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CSE 1301 6B-49 Write the nested loops that cause the output below to print. 1 1 2 2 3 2 3 4 2 3 1 2 1

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