Presentation on theme: "Masayuki Okumura RESULT CONCLUSION This is a simple suggestion that requires willingness and determination, with immediate results."— Presentation transcript:
Masayuki Okumura firstname.lastname@example.org RESULT CONCLUSION This is a simple suggestion that requires willingness and determination, with immediate results regarding pollution and improvement of congestion; however, it requires at least six months of observation for its definitive installment. São Paulo begins the XXI century facing two problems that have challenged the highest political, administrative and environmental authorities. Occupying an area of 1,509 Km 2, with 10 million inhabitants, 5 million vehicles circulating in the city, (average of 1.2 vehicles/inhabitant) and without a definitive project for decentralization, decongestion and reduction of atmospheric pollution from the expanded Capital, life will become impossible in São Paulo City (SPC) if urgent and radical measures are not taken. The city is divided into 27 Regional Administrations: 1 – Aricanduva/Formosa; 2 – Butanta; 3 – Campo Limpo; 4 – Capela do Socorro; 5 – Casa Verde; 6 – Ermelindo Matarazzo; 7 – Freguesia do O; 8 – Guaianazes; 9 – Ipiranga; 10 – Itaquera; 11 – Jabaquara; 12 – Jaçana/Tremembe; 13 – Lapa; 14 – V. Maria/V. Guilherme; 15 – Mooca; 16 – São Miguel Paulista; 17 – Penha; 18 – Pinheiros; 19 – Pirituba/Jaguare; 20 – Perus; 21 – Santo Amaro; 22 – Se; 23 – São Mateus; 24 – Santana; 25 – V. Marianna; 26 – V. Prudente; 27 – Cidade Ademar (Sempla/Deinfo, March 1999. PRODAM). The Expanded Center of SPC is limited by the Margins of the Tiete and Pinheiros Rivers, Avenida dos Bandeirantes, Complexo Viario Maria Maluf, Avenida Tancredo Neves, Juntas Provisorias, Luiz Ignacio de Anhaia Mello and Salim Farah Maluf, encompassing the Historic Center. The Center includes the present census districts of Se, Republica, Santa Cecilia, Liberdade, Pari, Cambuci, Bras, part of the Bexiga, Barra Funda, Belem and Mooca, besides Aclimação, Bela Vista, Cerqueira Cesar, Consolação, Indianopolis, Jardins (America, Europa and Paulista), Lapa, Perdizes, Pinheiros, Vila Madalena and Vila Mariana. INTRODUCTION a) alternate the commercial centers business hours; b) solve the traffic jam problem; c) reduce SPC centers atmospheric pollution. OBJECTIVE PRESENT STATE Business hours are from 9:30 to 6:30, responsible for major traffic jams and pollution (from 7:00 to 10:00 oclock, from the residential areas to the downtown center and from 17:00 to 20:00 in the opposite direction). During these peak hours, the city has installed a ROTATION OF VEHICLES IN THE EXPANDED CENTER OF THE CAPITAL. The average worker takes about two hours and twenty minutes/day to travel to and from work. Since SPC has an area of 1,509Km 2 and ten million inhabitants, it accumulates a concentration of polluting substances that affect an alarming proportion, especially during thermal inversions. Vehicles emit an estimated 370 thousand tons of nitrous oxide, 370 thousand tons of hydrocarbons, 130 thousand tons of sulfur oxides, 62 tons of molecules and industries participate with 31% sulfur oxides and 10% inhaleable particles. Motor vehicles contribute to ninety percent of atmospheric pollution (Fig. 6), with 2/3 made up of carbon monoxide (CO), a product of motor combustion, (47% from gasoline, 24% from diesel and 13% from alcohol fuel), according to reports by CETESB (Companhia Estadual de Transito e Saneamento Basico) (Report of Air Quality in São Paulo State). SUGGESTIONS A) ROTATE BUSINESS ACTIVITIES: to apply the project of the former mayor of SP (Janio da Silva Quadros (1984-1988) in the center of SP. This plan called for setting business operating hours from 8:00 or 9:30, not allowing use of the intermediate period. Luiza Erundina Mayor of SP from 1988-1992, in agreement with businessmen established business hours starting at 9:30. City traffic was practically defined (1997): a) INDUSTRY employees (1,855,000 trips) circulating before 7:00; b) STUDENTS (4,282,000 trips) beginning classes around 7:00 and 8:00; c) CIVIL SERVANTS, and PRIVATE COMPANY OFFICE WORKERS at 9:00; d) BANK CLERKS at 10:00 (total trips 8,352,000), with corresponding times for evening closure. In 1997, 20,620,000 mass transportation vehicles circulated in the SP Metropolitan Region, (subway, trains, buses and public car pool – total 10,472,000 trips) and private transportation (cars, taxis, motorcycles and others – 10,148,000). As a result of new business activity, peak traffic flow has changed from 8:00 to 9:00 oclock, with empty buses returning from the center to the residential areas, promoting traffic jams during peak hours from 7:00 to 10:00 oclock in the morning and 17:00 to 20:00 in the evening. B) SOLVE THE PROBLEM OF TRAFFIC JAMS AND POLLUTION OF SPs EXPANDED CENTER: a – Continue with the BUS LANES, distributing them selectively; b – Install regular MINI-BUS lines in areas between the present bus lanes, because currently, the residents of these streets do not take advantage of mass transportation (**); Introduce a network of parallel mini-bus lines, directly linked to residential areas situated in opposite zones of the city in the north-south and east-west, dividing them in 10 or more lanes in both directions. In a North-South direction the lanes would follow the vertical columns A to O and in an East-West direction the horizontal lanes from No. 1 to 25, besides being crossed obliquely by the actual bus lanes, providing yet another transportation option (Fig. 6). This network would enable passengers to utilize two vehicles at most to arrive at their destination, without necessarily passing through the city center. The latter is what is happening with the majority of the 379 bus lines; it would also reduce pollution and eliminate the lines at the central terminals (Graph 1) C) POLLUTION 1. Devices based on Hydro-Eolic Energy could be installed at strategic points and particularly along the bus lanes, employing the principle of WATER TROMPE or Y adapted to the water and sewage system for aspirating the polluted air of SP City. 2. Besides the previously adopted measures, cooperate with the SP State Government and the Federal Government in the construction of the Rodoanel (Ring Highway to avoid passing through the city). The use of gas fuel should be stimulated and the Proalcohol and Auto-train programs reactivated, with the transfer of cargoes in the terminals to smaller vehicles with less pollution. Figure 1Figure 4 Figure 3 Graph 1 (all nos. in millions) 2062061312154619842821855TOTAL 101483442104827092284665PRIVATE 1047226891106348919981190MASS TRANS. TOTALPOPCOMSERVEDUINDVEHICLE (g)(d;e)(d)(b;c)(a)Graph 1 REASON FOR TRIP Table 1
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