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Chinese Tea Culture.

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1 Chinese Tea Culture

2 Chinese Tea Culture Introduction China, the Hometown of Tea
The Importance of Tea in People’s Daily Life Classification of Tea Tea and Health Tea Custom Tea Ceremonies Gongfu Tea Tea and Chinese Culture Tea Service Master Tea utensils

3 Introduction Tea (茶) commonly denotes the drink made from steeping(浸泡) the processed leaves, buds(芽), or twigs(枝) of the tea bush (Camellia sinensis 茶树) in water. Only the top 1-2 inches of the mature plant are picked. These buds and leaves are called flushes(嫩芽) . A plant will grow a new flush every seven to fifteen days during the growing season, and leaves that are slow in development always produce better flavored teas.

4 Of the three major beverages of the world-- tea, coffee and cocoa-- tea is consumed by the largest number of people in the world. It has a cooling, slightly bitter, astringent flavor (涩味)which many enjoy.

5 Introduction Chinese tea culture refers to the methods of preparation of tea,the equipment used to make tea and the occasions in which tea is consumed in China. The terms chayi "Art of Tea 茶艺" and "Tea Ceremony" have been used, but the term "Tea Culture茶文化" includes more than just the ceremony. Also "culture" is easier to translate into English from the Chinese term "art 艺".

6 Tea culture in China differs from that of Europe, Britain or Japan in such things as preparation methods, tasting methods and the occasions for which it is consumed. Even now, in both casual and formal Chinese occasions, tea is consumed regularly. In addition to being a drink, Chinese tea is used in Traditional Chinese medicine and in Chinese cuisine.

7 China, the Hometown of Tea
It is universally acknowledged that China is the original tea-growing area, as well as the first country to grow, produce and drink tea. China, the Hometown of Tea The Discovery of Tea The History of tea in China

8 The Discovery of Tea According to legend, in 2737 BC, Emperor SHEN NUNG a notably skilled ruler, scientist, scholar and patron守护神 of the arts, ruled China’s vast empire. His many farsighted edicts法令 included the requirement that all drinking water be boiled as a hygienic precaution. Shen Nung Tasted Plants

9 The Discovery of Tea One summer day, while on a state visit to a distant part of his realm, he and the court stopped to rest. Accordingly, servants began boiling water for the royal court to drink. By chance, the wind blew dried leaves from a near by bush, into the boiling water and a brown substance was infused into the liquid. As a gifted herbalist and scientist the Emperor was interested in the newly blended concoction混合物. He examined its properties and after sipping and tasting he declared it to be…”MOST REFRESHING!”

10 The History of tea in China
It has been used as medicine since the primitive society. It has been found in the record documents of China’ Zhou Dynasty about 1100BC. According to historical data, China began to grow tea about two thousand years ago during the period of the Warring States ( BC). Drinking tea became a fashion in the Western Jin Dynasty and Tang dynasty. In the Song ( ) and Yuan ( ) Dynasties tea appraising became a popular custom Since 1700s, the Chinese tea has largely expended into the world market.

11 The History of tea in China
At present more than forty countries in the world grow tea, with Asian countries producing 90% of the world's total output. All tea trees in other countries have their origin directly or indirectly in China.

12 Map of Chinese Tea Producing Area
21 Provinces 4 regions

13 Lu Yu, the Sage of Tea 陆羽煮茶图
陆羽(733年-804年),字鸿渐;唐朝复州竟陵(今湖北天门市)人。一名疾,字季疵,号竟陵子、桑苎翁、东冈子,又号茶山御史。以著世界第一部茶叶专著——《茶经》闻名于世,对中国茶业和世界茶业做出了卓越贡献,被誉为“茶圣”,奉为“茶仙”,祀为“茶神”。 《新唐书·陆羽传》记:“羽嗜茶,著经三篇,言茶之原、之法、之具尤备,天下益知饮茶矣。”

14 Lu Yu: Sage of Tea “Tea Jing” 茶经(Tea Classics) written by Lu Yu 陆羽 in 760AD was the first book of tea in the world.

15 Tea appraising in Ancient China
In the Song and Yuan Dynasties a popular custom was. Over the long history of drinking tea, a special and simple Chinese tea culture came into being. Drinking tea was not only for quenching thirst or for enjoyment, but also for the promotion of friendship and mutual understanding. Folk customs of drinking tea reflected the ancient Chinese people's great interest in tea culture. 品茶图 斗茶 Tea Fight

16 A tea plant will grow into a tree of up to 16 meters (52 ft) if left undisturbed, but cultivated plants are pruned to waist height for ease of plucking.

17 Wild Tea Trees in Yunnan Province
Height: 32.12 m

18

19 Tea Mountains

20 The importance of Tea

21 Tea in Daily Life “Firewood, rice, oil, salt, sauce, vinegar and tea are the seven necessities to begin a day.” Cu Cha Dan Fann 粗茶淡饭: coarse tea and tasteless dinner

22 The Importance of Tea Tea in China’s Economy
Tea has always been a vital part of China’s economy. Back in the “Good Old Days” 往昔美好时光of the Great Wall it was actually used as money! Black Tea was formed into bricks and carried by traders as the caravans 穿越沙漠的)旅行队ventured west. At that time, a brick of Black Tea was as precious as gold and as important an international currency as the US Dollar is today.

23 Tea in Literature 商人重利轻别离,前月浮梁买茶去。
The merchant cared for money more than for me, one month ago he went away to purchase tea. 酒壮英雄胆,茶引文人思。 Wine can add virginity to heroes while tea can stir up men of letters.

24 Tea in Art 秉烛品茶

25 Tea Classification The main varieties of Chinese tea: Green Tea
Black Tea Oolong Tea White Tea Yellow Tea Scented Tea

26 Tea producing technology 制茶工艺

27 制茶工艺 (1)绿茶:鲜叶-杀青-揉捻(做形)-干燥  ⑵黄茶:鲜叶-杀青-揉捻-闷黄-干燥  ⑶黑茶:鲜叶-杀青-揉捻-渥堆-干燥  ⑷白茶:萎凋-干燥 (新工艺白茶:萎凋-轻揉-干燥)  ⑸青茶(乌龙茶):萎凋-做青-炒青-揉捻(做形)-干燥  ⑹红茶:萎凋-揉捻-发酵-干燥

28 Tea Classification Other teas: date tea ginseng tea fruit tea
eight-treasure tea lotus seed-heart tea Tangerine(柑橘) peel tea Chrysanthemum (菊花)Tea

29 Green tea 绿茶 Characteristics The tea made without being fermented.
The tea liquid and tea leaves are greenish. Benefits: It help people reduce their inner heat. It helps with anti-ageing. It prevents computer radiation and bad breath.

30 Green tea 绿茶 The most well-known green teas:
Longjing Tea from West Lake of Hangzhou 西湖龙井 Maofeng Tea from Huangshan Mountain 黄山毛峰 Yunwu Tea from Lushan Mountain 庐山云雾 Biluochun Tea from Jiangsu 洞庭碧螺春

31 Longjing Tea 龙井 a top-grade green tea from Longjing, West Lake, Hangzhou Four characteristics: green in color 色绿 fragrant in smell 香郁 sweet in taste 味醇 beautiful in appearance形美

32 Longjing Tea

33 West Lake

34 Biluochun Tea 碧螺春 a top-grade green tea from Dongting 洞庭, Taihu, 太湖,Wu County吴县, Jiangsu Province Biluo Peak on Mountain Dongting “Terrifying aroma” 吓煞人香 Emperor Kangxi 康熙 named it biluochun.

35 Biluochun Tea

36 Dongting

37 Black tea 红茶 Characteristics: The fermented tea.
The most popular tea in the world. The tea liquid and tealeaves are reddish. Benefits: It facilitates the fostering of yangqi in the human body. It warms the stomach. It helps with digestion. It is a most suitable choice in cold seasons.

38 The most well-known black teas:
Qimen Black Tea 祁门红茶 Yunan Dianhong Tea 云南滇红 Sichuan Chuanhong Tea 四川川红

39 Qimen black tea a top-grade black tea from Qimen 祁门 and Guichi 贵溪 of Anhui Province. In 1915, Qimen black tea was awarded the Gold Medal at Panama International Fair. From then on, it has been popular with people in foreign countries, especially the upper-class people in Britain.

40 Qimen black tea

41 Qimen

42 Oolong tea 乌龙茶 Characteristics: Benefits: blue tea 青茶
The half-fermented tea an important part of Gongfu tea The tea leaves are green in the center and red at the edge. Benefits: It decomposes fat and helps people lose weight.

43 The most well-known blue teas:
Oolong tea 乌龙茶 The most well-known blue teas: Tieguanyin (Iron Goddess Guanyin) 铁观音 Wuyiyan Tea 武夷岩茶 Taiwan Oolong Tea 台湾乌龙

44 Tieguanyin 铁观音 Tieguanyin Tea, translated into English as Iron Goddess Tea, is one of the most famous types of Chinese Tea. It has many different translations and is often called Tieguanyin, Ti Kuan Yin, Tikuanyin, Iron Buddha, Iron Goddess Tea, and Iron Goddess of Mercy Tea. Tieguanyin is produced originally in Anxi County(安溪) in Fujian Province Tealeaves: dark green in color, similar to that of iron It is said that Tieguanyin has such a strong aroma that even after adding water to the teapot seven times, one can still enjoy the pleasant taste and fragrance. Several legends of Tieguanyin.

45 Tieguanyin 铁观音

46 A Legend of Tieguanyin 2-1
During the reign of Emperor Qianlong there in Fujian Province's Anxi County there was a dilapidated temple that was dedicated to the Buddhist Bodhisattva Guanyin, the Goddess of Mercy. A poor farmer named Wei Yin(魏饮) , on his way to his fields’ everyday, would pass the temple and noticed its deteriorating state. He felt something needed to be done. The farmer was quite poor and didn't have the means to restore the temple, so instead he brought a broom and incense to the temple. He thoroughly cleaned the temple and burned the incense in offering to Guanyin. He did this twice a month for many months.

47 A Legend of Tieguanyin 2-2
One night in a dream, the Bodhisattva Guanyin appeared to him and told him of a cave located behind the temple. Guanyin told him that a treasure was waiting in the cave for him. He was told to take this treasure and share it with others. When he woke up, Old Wei headed straight to the temple and found the cave which he had never noticed before. Growing in the cave was a single tea shoot. He took the shoot home, planted it, and nurtured it until it grew into a large bush. The tea he made from this bush was fantastic and unlike any tea he had ever tasted. He knew that this tree was indeed a treasure. He gave cuttings of the bush to all of his neighbors and began selling the plant as Tieguanyin, or Iron Goddess of Mercy. The tree of legend still exists and is considered a national treasure. Located near the tree, carved into the cliff is the name of the farmer who, according to legend, found the original tree.

48 Anxi 安溪

49 White tea 白茶 Characteristics:
uncured, non-fermented, non-rubbed, fast-dried green tea The tealeaves are silver in color and have fine white hair on them. The tea liquid is yellowish in color and sweet in taste, with natural fragrance. Benefits: It helps dispel heat within the human body. It also enhances immune function It protects the heart and blood vessels.

50 The most well-known White tea:
It is mainly produced in Fuding 福鼎,Zhenghe 政和, and Songxi松溪 of Fujian Province. The most well-known White tea: “yinzhen baihao” 银针白毫 (silver needle with fine hair on them) “baimudan” 白牡丹 (White Peony )

51 yinzhen baihao 银针白毫

52 Yellow Tea 黄茶 Characteristics:
The tea is produced by letting damp tea leaves naturally turn yellow It has an original smell like that of black tea if the tea is cured with other herbs, but its taste is most similar to green and white teas. Benefits: It refreshes the mind. It helps clear away heat and toxic materials within the human body.

53 Yellow Tea 黄茶 The best well-known: Junshan Yinzhen (君山银针) from Hunan
Huoshan Huangya (癨山黄芽) from Mt Huo, Anhui Meng Ding Huangya (蒙顶黄芽) from Mt. Meng, Sichuan Da Ye Qing (大叶青)from Guangdong

54 Junshan Yinzhen 君山银针

55 Scented tea 花茶 The tea made by mixing and aromatizing tea leaves with scented flowers It is produced mainly in Fujian, Zhejiang, Jiangsu and Anhui provinces.

56 Scented tea 花茶 The most well-known: jasmine tea 茉莉花茶 magnolia tea 玉兰花茶
lotus flower tea 荷花茶 chrysanthemum tea 菊花茶 rose tea 玫瑰花茶

57 Jasmine tea 茉莉花茶 the most popular among scented tea made from jasmine flowers. The most well-known jasmine flower tea is produced in Fujian Province.

58 The Steps of Making Jasmine Tea
Pick a lot of jasmine flower buds and put them in a clean place; At midnight when the flowers have the strongest fragrance, add green tea to them for absorption; Get rid of the withered jasmine flowers and get the tealeaves baked; Put the baked tealeaves into newly picked jasmine flowers again. This is repeated several times before the tealeaves are ready to be used.

59 Compressed tea 压制茶 The tea compressed and hardened into a certain shape brick tea 砖茶: in the form of bricks Tuocha 沱茶: in the form of cakes and bowls good for transport and storage mainly supplied to the ethnic minorities living in the border areas of the country mainly produced in Hubei, Hunan, Sichuan and Yunnan provinces

60 Compressed tea Brick tea: 砖茶 huazhuan 花砖茶 (flower brick)
heizhuan 黑砖茶 (black brick) mizhuan 米砖茶 (rice brick) qingzhuan 青砖茶 (green brick) Tuocha 沱茶 Xiaguan tuocha 下关沱茶 Pu’er tuocha 普洱沱茶 Sichuan tuocha 四川沱茶

61 Huazhuan & Heizhuan

62 Qingzhuan & Mizhuan

63 Tuocha

64 Tea Custom Popularity Tea health benefits Social functions
Some common practices Tea Ceremony

65 Tea customs Popularity: Scented tea is popular in northern China;
Green tea is preferred in eastern China; Black tea is optimum for people in Fujian and Guangdong; Compressed tea is mainly for minorities.

66 Tea and Health Tea is a natural and healthy drink.
Tea contains a lot of nutrients that help to build up good health. Tea is refreshing and helps you work efficiently. Tea is a thirst quencher and aids digestion of food. Tea helps to disinfect and alleviate inflammation. Tea helps urinary output and purge toxins. Tea helps fitness and against cardiovascular diseases.

67 Social Functions As a sign of respect:
The younger generation shows its respect to the older generation by offering a cup of tea. To apologize: People make serious apologies to others by pouring them tea. (a sign of regret and submission) To express thanks to your elders on your wedding day: Traditionally, both the bride and groom kneel in front of their parents and serve them tea.

68 Tea Served at Wedding Ceremony

69 Some common practices One should neither pour tea water till the teacup is full nor empty the teapot or teacups while drinking tea. (Shandong Province) If a guest emptied his/her teacup, the host would think he/she does not want any more tea and therefore wouldn’t offer him/her any more tea. Knocking bent index, middle and ring fingers on the table three times to express gratitude to the person who serves the tea.

70 Tea Ceremony

71 Tea Ceremonies The Chinese tea ceremony, also called the Chinese Way of Tea, is a Chinese cultural activity involving the ceremonial preparation and presentation of tea leaf. The manner in which it is performed, or the art of its performance is shown in the tea ceremony. Taoism has also been an influence in the development of the tea ceremony. The elements of the Chinese tea ceremony is the harmony of nature and enjoying tea in an informal and formal setting. Tea ceremonies are now being revived in China's new fast-paced culture, and continuing in the long tradition of intangible Chinese art .

72 Tea Ceremony

73 Steps to Make Tea Heat the pot: Heat the teapot with boiled water to eliminate peculiar smell. Heated pot can help to release the tea scent.    

74 Steps to Make Tea Place the tea: The mouth of the teapot is usually small, so one should first put the tea in a special half-ball vessel and hand it to guests for them to appraise the shape of the tea leaf. Then, put the tea into the pot with a teaspoon. The amount of the tea is about 1/3 of the teapot.

75 Steps to Make Tea Warm the cup: Warm the cups with boiled water that heats the pot.

76 Steps to Make Tea High pour: One needs to lift up the kettle high to make a good tea. The tealeaves turn over and scatter in the pot after water pouring in from a high level. This is known as high pour, a better way to get out the aroma of the tealeaves.    

77 Steps to Make Tea Low pour: After the tea is ready, one can pour it into a handless cup. This time, one should keep the pot's mouth as low as possible and close to the cup to minimize escaping of the aroma. This is known as low pour. Normally, pour the first-round brewing and the second-round brewing into one cup, one will have a better taste tea. Repeat this when one makes the third and fourth brewing, and the following rounds as well.    

78 Steps to Make Tea Distribute the tea: Tea is distributed into cups from the handless cup, with an amount of about 7/10 of the cup. Offer the tea: Offer the tea to guests in teacups together with cup pad. Smell the tea: Before tasting the tea, one should first look at its color and smell its aroma. Taste the tea: The Chinese character 品 (taste) is three 口 (mouth) that are put together, which means one should taste one cup of tea in three sips. Before sipping and tasting the tea, one should smile at the tea brewer for one or two seconds to express appreciation.

79 Gongfu tea

80 Gongfu Tea Introduction The vessels for Gongfu tea Drinking Process

81 Gongfu Tea: Introduction
What does Gonggu( 功夫) mean in Chinese? It came into being in the Qing Dynasty. Gongfu: time-consuming. choose the appropriate tea set take time to prepare the tea take time to taste and drink the tea

82 Gongfu Tea: Four treasures
Kettle: yushu wei 玉书煨 Oven: chaoshan lu 潮汕炉 Teapot: mengchen gua 孟臣罐 Cups: Ruochen ou 若琛瓯 The tea vessels are small and exquisite.

83 Gongfu Tea: Drinking Process
The teapot and teacups are heated with hot water. Tealeaves are put into the teapot (7/10 of the capacity). Boiling water is poured into the teapot. When pouring boiling water from the kettle into the teapot, one should raise the kettle high. When pouring tea from the teapot into the teacups, one should lower the teapot and keep its spout close to the teacups.

84 Gongfu Tea: Drinking Process
One should not fill one teacup after another, instead, one should put the teacups in a circle and pour a little tea into the teacups each time. Only after two or three rounds of pouring should the teacups be filled with tea. (This is to ensure that each teacup gets an even share of tea and each cup of tea has the same taste.) Even when only a few drops of tea water is left, the person serving tea should not stop serving; he/her should drip the tea water into all the teacups in turn to the last drop.

85 Gongfu tea: Drinking Process
The person serving the tea should take the teapot handle with his/her thumb and middle finger, push the teapot lid open with his/her forefinger, and make the tea water drip up by means of air pressure. When drinking tea, one should not drink it up all at once; he/she should first smell it, taste it, then drink it slowly. One should strictly follow the rules, otherwise he/she would be considered as ignorant of tea etiquette.

86 Tea and Chinese Culture
In the Tang Dynasty, the word cha (tea) was a complimentary name for girls. Little girls were called “little cha” or “chacha”. 牙牙娇语总堪夸,学念新诗似小茶。--元好问 进得女真千户妹,十三娇小唤茶茶。--朱有燉

87 Tea and Chinese Culture
Betrothal gifts(订婚礼): tea gifts bridegroom’s family: tea gift giving 下茶 bride’s family: tea gift accepting 受茶 Tea can only propagate(繁殖) by seeds and tea trees cannot be transplanted once they are planted.

88 Tea and Chinese Culture
“Listen to her!” cried Tai-yu. “Just took a little tea from her and she starts to order you about.” His-feng chuckled. “Only asked a favor, you make such a fuss! And over drinking tea! Now since you have drunk our tea, a daughter-in-law you should be!” On hearing this, the whole party burst out laughing. Tai-yu blushed and turned her head away, saying nothing.

89 Tea and Chinese Culture
竹无俗韵,茗有奇香。 煮沸三江水,同饮五岳茶。 客至心常热 ,人走茶不凉。 拣茶为款同心友, 筑室因藏善本书 。 山静无音水自喻, 茗因有泉味更香。 青山似欲留人住, 香茗何妨为客尝。

90 《一字至七字诗·茶》元稹[唐] 茶, 香叶,嫩芽, 慕诗客,爱僧家。 碾雕白玉,罗织红纱。 铫煎黄蕊色,碗转曲尘花。
  茶,   香叶,嫩芽,   慕诗客,爱僧家。   碾雕白玉,罗织红纱。   铫煎黄蕊色,碗转曲尘花。   夜后邀陪明月,晨前命对朝霞。   洗尽古今人不倦,将至醉后岂堪夸。

91 Tea Service Master 茶博士

92

93 Tea Service Master 茶博士

94

95 Tea Service Master 茶博士

96 Tea utensils

97 Tea Sets Fictile(陶) Tea Sets Porcelain(瓷)Tea Sets
White-porcelain tea sets Celadon (青瓷 )tea sets Black-porcelain tea sets Lacquer Tea Sets (漆器茶具 ) Glass Tea Sets Metal Tea Sets Bamboo and Wooden Tea Sets

98 Fictile Tea Sets The purple clay teapot is made of unglazed clay (素烧的,没有上釉的黏土), which is baked with purple and red mud specially found in the local area. Among the fictile tea sets, the purple clay tea set made in Yixing is regarded as the best one.

99 Porcelain Tea Sets White-porcelain tea sets: the most famous white-porcelain producing area is Jingdezhen, and other areas include Liling of Hunan Province, Tangshan of Hebei Province and Qimen of Anhui Province.

100 Lacquer Tea Sets Lacquer tea sets were put into use in the Qing Dynasty and mainly made in Fuzhou area of Fujian Province.

101 Glass Tea Sets Glass, transparent and with dazzling luster, is a plastic material used widely. Using glass cup to make tea, one can enjoy a good view of the bright color of the water and the tender tealeaves that are pushed up and down when water is poured in and then slowly stretch.

102 Metal Tea Sets Metal has great advantage over other materials in tea storage, and tin is the best one compared to all other metals such as gold, silver and copper. Tin pot is mostly made with small mouth and long neck together with a tube-shaped body. Such kind of airproof tin pot can guard tea against moisture, oxidation, light and peculiar smell.

103 Bamboo and Wooden Tea Sets
Bamboo and Wooden Tea Sets: In past days, large rural areas, including tea-producing areas, used bamboo or wooden tea sets to make tea because they were cheap but with good quality. But such tea sets are seldom used nowadays, except some bamboo and wooden pots that are used to store tea, especially teapots made of boxwood(黄杨木) and reed-bamboo.

104 Tea utensils

105 Tea utensils

106 Tea utensils

107 Tea utensils

108 Tea utensils

109 Homework for the next unit
Introduce local operas in your hometown or opera you like.


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