Presentation on theme: "Capacity and Consent Dr Alick Bush (Consultant Clinical Psychologist and Clinical Director) Dr Zara Clarke (Clinical Psychologist)"— Presentation transcript:
Capacity and Consent Dr Alick Bush (Consultant Clinical Psychologist and Clinical Director) Alick.email@example.com Dr Zara Clarke (Clinical Psychologist) Zara.firstname.lastname@example.org
Capacity and Consent This presentation will cover main headlines– Mental Capacity Act (2005) Deprivation of Liberty legislation Alternatives to Restraint What might be implications for GP’s?
Mental Capacity Act 2005 “Provides a statutory framework to empower and protect vulnerable people who may not be able to make their own decisions. It makes clear who takes decisions in which situations and how they should go about this. It enables people to plan ahead for a time when they may lose capacity.” Implemented 1 April 2007
5 Key Principles 1.Presumption of capacity, unless proved otherwise. 2.Right to be supported to make decision, before concluded they can not make own decision. 3.Right to make “eccentric or unwise” decisions. 4.Best interests – any act done for a person without capacity must be “in their best interests”. 5.Least restrictive intervention.
Assessing lack of capacity Testing whether someone is unable to make a specific decision: Understand the information relevant to the decision (understand consequences of options) Retain that information Weigh up that information as part of a decision-making process Communicate the decision
Section 5 – Acts in connection with care or treatment Where a person provides care to someone who lacks capacity, they can provide it without incurring legal liability Providing there is a proper assessment of capacity and best interests Examples – giving injection, spending person’s money to buy items, attending to personal hygiene, change of residence, basic life support This applies to all carers. Therefore all carers must understand MCA
Best interests Everything done for person who lacks capacity must be in their “best interests” Section 4 sets out a checklist of steps and factors to be considered Consideration must be given to whether there are other options that may be less restrictive of the person’s rights. The decision maker must reasonably believe that any action intended to restrain a person who lacks capacity is necessary to prevent harm to the person and a proportionate response to the likelihood and seriousness of harm
What role do GPs play ? Being aware of their obligations under the Mental Capacity Act, in terms of providing care/treatment to people whose capacity is in question –Does patient have the capacity to consent to treatment? –If not, how to make best interests decision legally Seeking out further advice/support (for example, from the Learning Disabilities Service) in difficult/unusual situations
Deprivation of Liberty Safeguards Introduced into MCA through the Mental Health Act Amendments 2007 Became a LA/PCT statutory duty 1 st April 2009 Only applies to people who lack capacity (as defined in MCA) Safeguards cover people in hospital and care homes registered under the Care Standards Act 2000 It will prevent arbitrary decisions that deprive vulnerable people of their liberty Safeguards are to protect service users providing them with representatives, regular reviews and rights of appeal
So what do we mean by a Deprivation of Liberty? Code of Practice distinguishes between: Restriction of liberty – lawful if it is in a person’s best interests. Deprivation of Liberty – unlawful breach of human rights without legal statute “ The distinction between deprivation of, and restriction of liberty, is one of degree or intensity and not one of nature or substance” (DoH) A point comes where a restriction of liberty becomes a Deprivation of Liberty
What is a Deprivation of Liberty? Not – by themselves – a DOL Locked ward Keypad / double door handles Bringing back the patient who has wandered Reasonable persuasion being used to take a confused person to hospital Placing reasonable limitations on visitation rights Refusing to let the patient leave without an escort whose job it is to support the patient One or more would be a DOL Force being used to take a resisting person to hospital Force being used to prevent a person leaving hospital where they persistently try to leave Severely restricting access to the patient by relatives & carers Decision to admit being opposed by relatives / carers who live with the patient Denying a request by relatives to have the person discharged to their care
Subsequent case law DE and JE v Surrey County Council DE wished to have her husband discharged from a care home. JE said he wanted to go back to live with his wife (he lacked capacity to make an informed decision). Surrey Council opposed this on the grounds of risk to JE and took steps to prevent it from happening. The Court ruled this was a DoL even though there were no other restrictions within his care setting. Therefore being prevented from leaving might constitute a Deprivation of Liberty!
What role do GPs play ? Being aware of when deprivations of liberty may be taking place Making nursing and care homes aware of their obligations to refer (there are standard letters for this) Seeking advice from the Supervisory Body as appropriate Providing information to the appointed assessors about the patient
What is restraint ? The Oxford Dictionary defines “restraint” as “to check or hold in; to keep in check or under control; keep down”
Types of Restraint Physical restraint Mechanical restraint Chemical restraint Restricting individuals’ choices Withholding information And more………
Why is it important ? Risk of death Sometimes restraint is necessary, to keep people safe. There is a balance to be found between restraint, risk and duty of care. This is not always easy to find. Close links with other legal/policy agendas – – The Mental Capacity Act (2005) – Deprivation of Liberty Safeguards – Human Rights Act (1998) – Safeguarding Adults Issues around poor practice in relation to restraint have been highlighted in many reports/inquiries
What’s happening in Sheffield ? “Joint Policy on the Prevention and Management of the use of Restraint” launched July 2005 –Sets out the framework for the prevention and management of the use of restraint across Health and Social Care. –It applies to all adults receiving, or assessed as requiring, services that are provided or commissioned by SHSC or N&CC The Joint Learning Disabilities Service has developed - –Operational Guidance and a referral system for ‘restraint’ issues –Accessible Guidance around the issue of restraint –Training to all of its staff around Alternatives to Restraint –Alternatives to Restraint Practice Development Group
What role could GPs play ? Be aware of the legal, ethical and policy contexts around restraint Make referrals to the learning disabilities teams where restraint may be an issue
Further information www.signpostsheffield.org.uk Deprivation of Liberty Safeguards hotline – 0114 205 3783 (Mon-Fri 9.30-4.00) Alternatives to Restraint – Zara Clarke – 0114 271 6939 or Anita Winter 0114 271 6741 Mental Capacity Act Code of Practice – http://www.dca.gov.uk/legal-policy/mental-capacity/mca- cp.pdf http://www.dca.gov.uk/legal-policy/mental-capacity/mca- cp.pdf Deprivation of Liberty Safeguards Code of Practice - http://www.dh.gov.uk/en/Publicationsandstatistics/Public ations/PublicationsPolicyAndGuidance/DH_085476