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Unit Two: Biodiversity

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1 Unit Two: Biodiversity
Biology 112

2 Outcome: Students should be able to:
Understand the concept of binomial nomenclature as developed by Linneaus and understand its advantages for the scientific community

3 Principles of Taxonomy
Classification systems are used to name organisms and group them in a logical manner Taxonomy is the study of classification of living things Organisms are living things that can be assigned a classification based on their physical characteristics

4 Assigning Scientific Names
Referring to organisms by their common name can be confusing Scientists have agreed to use a single name for each species A species is a group of similar organisms that can breed and produce fertile offspring Latin and Greek are used when assigning scientific names

5 Binomial Nomenclature
Carolus Linneaus ( ) developed a two word naming system called binomial nomenclature for all species It is always written in italics, the first word is always capitalized and the second word in lower case The first word indicates the genus (closely related organisms) to which the species belongs The second word indicates the species, which may give indication about a particular trait of the organisms Sometimes, there is a third word to indicate a subspecies (which is called trinomial nomenclature)

6 Example of Binomial Nomenclature
Canis lupus is the gray wolf with over 37 subspecies - binomial One of those subspecies is the domestic dog, which is named Canis lupus familiaris - trinomial

7 Check for Understanding
Do the organisms Ursus arctos and Ursus maritimus belong to the same genus? Same species? What characteristic do you feel as though the word ‘arctos’ conveys? ‘maritimus’?

8 Linnaeus’s Classification System
There are 7 levels that are considered to be hierachical – from largest to smallest Each of these levels is called a taxon or taxonomic category Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species

9 Kingdom – plants and animals

10 Phylum Organisms share certain characteristics
One such phylum include mammals, whom belong to Phylum Chordata

11 Class Class Mammalia Narrows the characteristics further
In this case, all the characteristics of the phylum chordata with the addition of warm-blooded, have body hair and produce milk for their young

12 Order Similar families are grouped into an order Order carnivora
All the characteristics of class mammalia with the addition of meat eaters

13 Family A group of genera that share many common characteristics

14 Genus and species Homo sapien

15 For the remainder of class…
Textbook – read pages and complete the gudied reading for Section 18.1 Complete question 6 on page 450 Complete the question in the envelope... Section 18-1 Review – due the end of class

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