Presentation on theme: "Objective: To examine the causes and effects of the Emancipation Proclamation."— Presentation transcript:
Objective: To examine the causes and effects of the Emancipation Proclamation.
Slavery: Lincoln’s Dilemma “My paramount object in this struggle is to save the Union, and is not either to save or to destroy slavery. If I could save the Union without freeing any slave I would do it, and if I could save it by freeing all the slaves I would do it; and if I could save it by freeing some and leaving others alone I would also do that. What I do about slavery, and the colored race, I do because I believe it helps to save the Union; and what I forbear, I forbear because I do not believe it would help to save the Union.” – Abraham Lincoln, in a letter to Horace Greeley August 22, 1862 · The Civil War began as a war to restore the Union, NOT to end slavery.
(left) Free and slave states prior to the Civil War. (right) Confederate and Union states after the start of the Civil War. Union Confederacy
· Therefore, Lincoln decided to free enslaved African Americans in the Confederate states only. · Lincoln was afraid that if he ended slavery, it would anger the 4 proslavery states in the Union. (DE, MD, KY, and MO) Union Slave States
AbolitionistsAbolitionists pressured Lincoln to free the slaves. Battle of AntietamAfter the Battle of Antietam, he announced that the slaves would be freed. rebellionBecame effective on Jan. 1, 1863, in those states still in rebellion (blech). Emancipation ProclamationEmancipation Proclamation did not end slavery in US “first”Lincoln’s “first” step towards ending slavery. 13th Amendment“Final step” 13th Amendment to the Constitution on Dec. 1865 would legally and constitutionally abolish slavery.
- end slavery in Confederacy Emancipation Proclamation (Emancipate – to set free) · On January 1, 1863, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation. “On the 1st day of January, in the year of our Lord 1863, all persons held as slaves within any state or…part of a state (whose) people…shall then be in rebellion against the United States, shall be then, thenceforward, and forever free.” · Now the Union had two goals: - restore the Union
Freed all slaves in states in rebellion against the US Did not apply to slaves in border states fighting for US No affect on southern areas already under US control. Freed all slaves in states in rebellion against the US Did not apply to slaves in border states fighting for US No affect on southern areas already under US control. Kept Great Britain from siding with the South and becoming an ally. Kept Great Britain from siding with the South and becoming an ally. War was now a war to abolish slaveryabolish slavery destroy the Southdestroy the South preserve the Union War was now a war to abolish slaveryabolish slavery destroy the Southdestroy the South preserve the Union
First Reading of the Emancipation Proclamation of President Lincoln by Francis Bicknell Carpenter
How would you feel about the Emancipation Proclamation if you were… (1) a slave owner from Texas? (2) a slave owner from Missouri? (3) an abolitionist from Massachusetts? (4) a slave from Georgia? (6) Abraham Lincoln? (5) a slave from Maryland?
How would you feel about the Emancipation Proclamation if you were… “The slaves are free? Not in my state their not. Abraham Lincoln isn’t my President anymore, so I don’t have to listen to the Emancipation Proclamation. I only have to free my slaves if the Confederates lose the war.” (1) a slave owner from Texas? (2) a slave owner from Missouri? “I knew it was a good idea for us to stay in the Union! I get to keep my slaves, just like the slave owners in Kentucky, Maryland, and Delaware get to keep theirs.”
(3) an abolitionist from Massachusetts? “Hmmm…the Emancipation Proclamation is a good start, but it doesn’t go far enough. Slavery should be ended in all the states, not only the one’s in rebellion against the Union!” How would you feel about the Emancipation Proclamation if you were… (4) a slave from Georgia? “Yahoo, I’m free!! Wait a minute, no I’m not. I have to stay a slave until the Union wins the war!”
How would you feel about the Emancipation Proclamation if you were… (5) a slave from Maryland? “Man, this stinks. How come the slaves from most of the other states were freed but I have to remain a slave?” (6) Abraham Lincoln? “I wish that I could free the slaves in all of the states immediately. However, if I free the slaves in the border states, they may switch to the Confederacy, and I can’t allow that to happen. Anyway, nobody is really free until we’re able to defeat those Confederate rebels!”
“Writing the Emancipation Proclamation” In this caricature an inebriated Lincoln, surrounded by symbols of Satanism and paintings honoring John Brown and slave rebellions, trod on the Constitution as he drafted the proclamation.
Over 200,000 freed slaves fought for the US….. Famous 54th Black Regiment of Massachusetts which was organized by Frederick Douglass….. Over 200,000 freed slaves fought for the US….. Famous 54th Black Regiment of Massachusetts which was organized by Frederick Douglass…..
Black Soldiers At the start of the war the union army contained no black soldiers, other than “contraband” (2 laws passed during the war, the second of which allowed for Africans who left or were “captured” to fight, as well as clean dishes – slaves knew the war was about them and ran away whenever they could to Union soldiers, but Lincoln gave them back up) After emancipating the slaves, Lincoln enlisted them formally. By the end of the war nearly 200,000 blacks had served and received 25 Congressional Medals of Honor Death rates for black soldiers were much higher than white soldiers.
Captured black soldiers were often executed The most famous black regiment was the 54th Mass., which was the subject of the movie Glory The South would finally try to use slaves in 1864/5, offering them freedom, but it was much too late