2 The BeginningAccording to legend, Rome was founded by Romulus and Remus (twin brothers)
3 In the Beginning…Ancient Rome began as a group of villages along the Tiber River in what is now Italy.Around 750 B.C. these villages united to form the city of Rome.
4 Rome was built on seven rolling hills at a curve on the Tiber River This strategic location in the middle of the Italian Peninsula gave Rome fertile soil.
5 Control of Rome In the beginning 3 groups inhabited Rome: 3. Etruscans 2. Greeks1. Latins
6 Greek Influence Greeks established 50 colonies (settlements) in Italy These cities became busy with tradeBrought Italy and Rome in closer contact with GreeceGreeks taught Romans how to grow grapes and olives
7 The Etruscans (ee TRUS kanz) Native to Northern ItalyThey were skilled metalworkers and engineersStrongly influenced Roman civilization
8 Formation of Roman Republic For more than 200 years,kings ruled Rome.In 509 B.C. a group of patricians drove out the last Etruscan ruler and proclaimed Rome an independent republic (a form of government in which power resides in the people, and the government is ruled by elected leaders run according to law).
9 Patricians & Plebeians In the beginning most of the people elected to the Senate were patricians.Patricians controlled the law since they were the only citizens allowed to be judges.Plebeians had the right to vote, but could not hold public office until 287 B.C, when they gained equality with patricians.
10 Government in RomeRomans replaced their monarchy with elected officials called consuls.Two Consuls were elected from the Senate witch was made up of the Roman upper class.These two officials ruled at the same time for a year’s term.They each had full power with the right to veto the other’s actions.
11 Roman Army Romans were constantly at war. Rival city-states tried to take advantage of Rome by invading their territory.Roman forces conquered their neighbors overtime.Rome made treaties with the conquered towns, permitting them to operate independently in local matters.In return these towns were expected to provide troops for the Roman army in time of war.Resulting in endless sources of troops for Rome to use as they made conquests throughout Italy.
12 Roman ExpansionUnder the leadership of ambitious generals, Rome’s highly trained soldiers took over most of the land surrounding the Mediterranean.The ancient Romans called the Mediterranean mare nostrum, meaning “our sea”.
13 Roman Wars Were brutal and bloody. Roman soldiers made slaves of the defeated people.Roman allies started to pay tribute money to show their loyalty.
14 Roman Power Maintained power by colonization. Roman citizens were planted throughout the countryside to establish the Roman presence.Romans began building an extensive system of roads and bridges.Conquered lands were now connected to Rome.The Roman army and Roman traders could move anywhere with ease and speed.
15 Romans built over 53,000 miles of roads to connect every part of their empire. The roads were mostly built by the army and were all done by hand.
16 The Punic WarsCarthage was a city-state on the northern coast of Africa. Carthage was a huge trading empire.Rome was gaining power in the Mediterranean. Carthage was also gaining power in the Mediterranean. Rome did not want Carthage to control trade. Rome fought three wars with Carthage called the Punic Wars.
17 After the Punic WarsIncreasing wealth and expanding empire brought many problemsThe most serious problem was the widening gap between the rich and the poor.
18 Thousands of slaves were captured and made to work on Latifundias [lat-uh-fuhn-dee-uh m] = huge estates.1
19 2 Thousands of Soldiers returned from war without jobs or homes. They moved to cities like Rome to find work.They became part of the poor class.2
20 Two BrothersTiberius and Gracchus tried to help Rome’s poor by proposing to:Give land to the poorLimit the size of estates (latifundias)The senators felt threatened and the two brothers were murdered
21 Rich Romans became corrupt with money and luxury and tensions between the rich and the poor caused a civil war!3
22 Julius CaesarEventually an ambitious and daring leader emerged to bring order to Rome
23 Triumvirate The First Triumvirate = Julius Caesar, Crassus and Pompey Triumvirate = a group of three leaders working together in governmentHe conquered all of Gaul in France
24 Caesar’s ReformsHe became the absolute ruler of Rome = he had total power.He expanded the Senate by adding his friendsCreated jobs for the poor and expanded landRaised pay for soldiers
26 Why did Julius Caesar have enemies among the rich and powerful? military victories = very popular with the Romans.His soldiers were very loyal to their leader so Senate was afraid of his popularity and power.Pompey and some senators tried to take over power and Caesar defeated Pompey.After the civil war, Caesar was given more power.Senators didn't trust anyone who wanted to be a dictator and take their power. They thought he was trying to end the Republic.Caesar tried to get control of the senate by adding more senators who were loyal to him. Therefore, the senators felt their power was slipping even further.He granted citizenship to many Greeks. This made many Roman citizens angry.
27 The assassination led to another civil war led by Caesar’s adopted nephew Octavian & his best general, Marc Antony
28 End of the Republic & Rise of the Empire Caesar’s death changed Rome:People no longer trusted the Senate to rule Rome & the Roman Republic came to an end & the empire began
29 The Rise of the Roman Empire Octavian emerged as the unchallenged leader of Rome, was given the title Augustus (“Exalted One”), & became Rome’s first emperorUnder Augustus, Rome was ruled as an empire; the Senate still met but the emperor had all the real powerAugustus ruled Rome for 41 years
32 The Pax Romana Pax Romana Augustus’ 41 year reign marked the beginning of a 207-year era of peace, wealth, & expansion known as the Pax Romana (“the Roman Peace”) from 27 B.C. to 180 A.D.Pax Romana
33 During the Pax Romana, the empire expanded to its height & brought great wealth to Rome During the Pax Romana, emperors continued to expand
34 Roman aqueducts brought water to cities The Pax Romana became the “golden age” of Rome as emperors like Augustus built roads & a merit-based bureaucracy to rule the empireDuring the Pax Romana, emperors continued to expandRoman aqueducts brought water to cities
36 A Vast and Powerful Empire Octavian the adopted son of Julius Caesar accepts the title Augustus (exalted one)During his rule, Rome reaches its peak in power and reaches a time of great peaceFrom 27 B.C. to 180 A.D there will be a period of 207 years of peace called the Pax Romana
37 Economy during Pax Romana Agriculture is the most important industry of the Roman empireWhole empire used uniform silver coin called a denarius which made trade easierHad a huge network of roads that connected all the way to Persia and RussiaCreated prosperity and stability
38 Government of Pax Romana Augustus was a great emperor who:stabilized the frontierglorified Rome with splendid public buildingsSet up a civil serviceA civil service paid workers from the Plebeian class to:Manage grain supplyCollect taxesManage a postal systemGovernment was very stable
39 Roman architects used new styles like domes & concrete to beautify cities
40 Emperors built arenas & used chariot races, gladiator events, & theater to entertain the poor The Roman Coliseum
41 Emperor SuccessionPeace and prosperity depended on orderly transfer of powerThere was no written law for how to transfer the emperor’s power when he died
42 Conclusions Rome expanded from a city, to a republic, to an empire The era of the Roman Republic introduced representative democracyThe era of the Roman Empire sparked the Pax Romana & the “golden age” of Roman innovation & culture
43 Closure ActivityWould you rather live during the Roman Republic or the Empire?Discuss for 2 minutes with your table partnerTake out a sheet of paper, put your name on it, title it “Republic vs Empire”– You will turn this in.Write down where you would live and give at least 3 reasons why