Presentation on theme: "BHS 499-07 Memory and Amnesia Memory and Reality."— Presentation transcript:
BHS 499-07 Memory and Amnesia Memory and Reality
Source Monitoring Source monitoring – the ability to keep track of where a memory came from. Accurate source judgments can be made on partial or vague information using familiarity. Source is integrated into the memory trace. The search for source information is controlled by prefrontal lobes whereas retrieval involves temporal lobes.
Types of Source Information Several criteria are used to make judgments about the source of information: Perceptual information Contextual information Expectedness of the source Semantic detail or affective information Cognitive operations during original experience
Types of Source Monitoring Internal – distinguishing what you thought about doing from what you actually did. External – distinguishing between two external sources (who said what?) Reality monitoring – distinguishing memories of what really happened from what was imagined.
Source Monitoring Errors Information about source grounds memories in reality. Repeated attempts to remember can increase likelihood of confusing a real event with an imagined one. Repeated attempts to remember introduce perceptual qualities to the memory through imagination, making the memory seem real. Choices distort memories for qualities.
Source Cueing Source cueing – when the source is used as a retrieval cue to aid memory. Knowledge about the source can be used to narrow down choices during recall. Timbre is a perceptual quality of the source of a melody that can identify the instrument played and aid memory for the song itself.
Cryptomnesia Not all plagiarism is intentional. Cryptomnesia – when a person recalls a previously encountered idea without realizing the original source. The idea is mistakenly believed to be an original thought. This is a reality monitoring failure – the source is lost or was never encoded.
False Fame Familiarity increases when information is repeatedly presented. False fame effect – the tendency to think someone is famous because their name sounds familiar. Unfamiliar names previously viewed on a list were considered more famous the next day. There is a preference for the familiar.
Sleeper Effect When we first encounter information, the credibility of the source affects our acceptance of it. Later, when the source is forgotten, the information may gain (or lose) credibility compared to when first received. Conditions for the effect: (1) attention to the info; (2) source presented second; (3) must rate trustworthiness immediately afterward.
False Memories False memory – when people recall something that never happened. Deese-Roediger-McDermott Paradigm for creating false memories: Present a list of words associated with another word that is not presented, e.g. sleep. On testing, people are likely to recall “sleep”. Associations prime the not-presented word.
Conditions for False Memory The more associations, the more likely the false memory will occur. The less recallable the actual items are, the more reconstruction is needed and the more likely a false memory. More likely with partial or fuzzier recall. Pictures less likely to show the effect.
Influences on False Memory When people are directed to forget the list, false memory goes up. Part-set cueing is extended to the not- presented word, so false memory goes down. If the not-presented word is more emotional, false memory declines. Influenced by conformity & expectation.
False Memory from Integration Information from different points in time becomes integrated into a single memory. Several things are misremembered as the same event. Bransford & Franks – overlapping content is more likely to be integrated. Ants ate sweet jelly on the table.
Implanted Memories Loftus deliberately planted false memories in people. The content of a question about the past becomes part of what is later remembered. The more plausible the information, the more likely it will be implanted, but the implausible can be implanted.
Imagination Inflation Imagining an event, real or false, increases confidence in the memory for that event. Viewing pictures makes false memory more likely. Students can develop their own false memories by answering questions they know to be false.
Qualities of False Memories True memories are more often: Richer in detail, more emotional More likely to be “recollected” field memories. False memories are more often: Stereotypical events “Known” observer memories These qualities cannot be used to distinguish the true from false because of overlap.
Hypnosis & Memory Hypnosis – an altered state of consciousness in which a person is more willing to accept & follow suggestions. People vary in hypnotizability. Hypnotic amnesia is a recent phenomenon induced by expectations. Amnesia was not part of hypnosis until 20 th century.
Accuracy of Hypnotic Recall People report more memories while hypnotized, but are less accurate. The increased info may be no different than what occurs with repeated questioning without hypnosis. Along with more information, more intrusions (false info). Hypnotized subjects are more easily fooled.
Everyday False Memories Verbal overshadowing – memories change as we talk about them. 64% recalled robber without narrative, 38% percent with narrative Revelation effect – slowly revealed info can cause new info to be judged as old. Slow revelation generates familiarity A lengthy memory recovery process can add a sense of familiarity to what is described.